Statistical information Thailand 2001Thailand

Map of Thailand | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Thailand in the World

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Thailand - Introduction 2001
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Background: A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century; it was known as Siam until 1939. Thailand is the only southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II Thailand became a US ally following the conflict.


Thailand - Geography 2001
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Location: Southeastern Asia bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand southeast of Burma

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N 100 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Area
Total: 514,000 km²
Land: 511,770 km²
Water: 2,230 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries
Total: 4,863 km
Border countries: (4) Burma 1,800 km; , Cambodia 803 km; , Laos 1,754 km; , Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy warm cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
Extremes highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m

Natural resources: tin rubber natural gas tungsten tantalum timber lead fish gypsum lignite fluorite arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 34%
Permanent crops: 6%
Permanent pastures: 2%
Forests and woodland: 26%
Other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 44,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts

Geography
Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore


Thailand - People 2001
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Population
Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.91% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 12.5% (1998 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Thai (singular and plural)
Adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups: Thai 75% Chinese 14% other 11%

Languages: Thai English (secondary language of the elite) ethnic and regional dialects

Religions: Buddhism 95% Muslim 3.8% Christianity 0.5% Hinduism 0.1% other 0.6% (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 23.43% (male 7,380,273; female 7,099,506)
15-64 years: 69.95% (male 21,304,051; female 21,921,383)
65 years and over: 6.62% (male 1,796,325; female 2,296,213) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.91% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.63 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
International agreements party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male/female
Total population: 0.97 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 30.49 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.86 years
Male: 65.64 years
Female: 72.24 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 2.15% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 755,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 66,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 93.8%
Male: 96%
Female: 91.6% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Thailand - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
Conventional short form: Thailand
Former: Siam

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat singular and plural); Amnat Charoen Ang Thong Buriram Chachoengsao Chai Nat Chaiyaphum Chanthaburi Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Chon Buri Chumphon Kalasin Kamphaeng Phet Kanchanaburi Khon Kaen Krabi Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok) Lampang Lamphun Loei Lop Buri Mae Hong Son Maha Sarakham Mukdahan Nakhon Nayok Nakhon Pathom Nakhon Phanom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon Si Thammarat Nan Narathiwat Nong Bua Lamphu Nong Khai Nonthaburi Pathum Thani Pattani Phangnga Phatthalung Phayao Phetchabun Phetchaburi Phichit Phitsanulok Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Phrae Phuket Prachin Buri Prachuap Khiri Khan Ranong Ratchaburi Rayong Roi Et Sa Kaeo Sakon Nakhon Samut Prakan Samut Sakhon Samut Songkhram Sara Buri Satun Sing Buri Sisaket Songkhla Sukhothai Suphan Buri Surat Thani Surin Tak Trang Trat Ubon Ratchathani Udon Thani Uthai Thani Uttaradit Yala Yasothon

Dependent areas

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of King PHUMIPHON 5 December (1927)

Constitution: new constitution signed by King PHUMIPHON on 11 October 1997

Legal system: based on civil law system with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946)
Head of government: Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat (since NA January 2001)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers
Note: there is also a Privy Council
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following a national election for the House of Representatives, the leader of the party that can organize a majority coalition usually becomes prime minister

Legislative branch
Elections: Senate - last held 4 March, 29 April, 4 June, 9 July, and 22 July 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); House of Representatives - last held 6 January 2001 (next to be held NA January 2005)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TRT 248, DP 128, TNP 41, NAP 36, NDP 29, other 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Sandika (judges appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP (Prachathipat Party) [CHUAN Likphai]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP (Seri Tham) [PHINIT Charusombat]; Mass Party or MP [CHALERM Yoobamrung SOPHON Petchsavang]; National Development Party or NDP (Chat Phattana) [KORN Dabbaransi]; New Aspiration Party or NAP (Khwamwang Mai) [Gen. CHAWALIT Yongchaiyut]; Phalang Dharma Party or PDP (Phalang Tham) [CHAIWAT Sinsuwong]; Social Action Party or SAP (Kitsangkhom Party) [leader vacant]; Solidarity Party or SP (Ekkaphap Party) [CHAIYOT Sasomsap]; Thai Citizen's Party or TCP (Prachakon Thai) [SAMAK Sunthonwet]; Thai Nation Party or TNP (Chat Thai Party) [BANHAN Sinlapa-acha]; Thai Rak Thai Party or TRT [THAKSIN Chinnawat]

International organization participation: APEC ARF AsDB ASEAN BIS CCC CP ESCAP FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU NAM OAS (observer) OIC (observer) OPCW OSCE (partner) PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNITAR UNMIBH UNTAET UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador TEJ Bunnag
In the us chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 944-3,600
In the us fax: [1] (202) 944-3,611
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Richard E. HECKLINGER
From the us embassy: 120/22 Wireless Road, Bangkok
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,546
From the us telephone: [66] (2) 205-4,000
From the us fax: [66] (2) 254-1171
From the us consulates general: Chiang Mai

Flag descriptionflag of Thailand: five horizontal bands of red (top) white blue (double width) white and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Thailand - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: After enjoying the world's highest growth rate from 1985 to 1995 - averaging almost 9% annually - increased speculative pressure on Thailand's currency in 1997 led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the government to float the baht. Long pegged at 25 to the dollar the baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10.2% that same year. Thailand entered a recovery stage in 1999 expanding 4.2% and grew about the same amount in 2000 largely due to strong exports - which increased about 20% in 2000. An ailing financial sector and the slow pace of corporate debt restructuring combined with a softening of global demand is likely to slow growth in 2001.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.2% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 13%
Industry: 40%
Services: 47% (1999)

Agriculture products: rice cassava (tapioca) rubber corn sugarcane coconuts soybeans

Industries: tourism; textiles and garments agricultural processing beverages tobacco cement light manufacturing such as jewelry; electric appliances and components computers and parts integrated circuits furniture plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 32.6 million (1997 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 54%
By occupation industry: 15%
By occupation services: 31% (1996 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.7% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 12.5% (1998 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.5%
Highest 10: 37.1% (1992)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $19 billion
Expenditures: $21 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 2.1% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $68.2 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: computers and parts textiles integrated circuits rice
Partners: US 22% Japan 14% Singapore 9% Hong Kong 5% Netherlands 4% Malaysia 4% UK 4% (1999)

Imports: $61.8 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: capital goods intermediate goods and raw materials consumer goods fuels
Partners: Japan 26% US 14% Singapore 6% China 5% Malaysia 5% Taiwan 5% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $90 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: baht per US dollar - 43.078 (January 2001) 40.112 (2000) 37.814 (1999) 41.359 (1998) 31.364 (1997) 25.343 (1996)


Thailand - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 89.431 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 91.17%
By source hydro: 3.81%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 5.02% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 83.991 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 200 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 1.02 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Thailand - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2.3 million (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: service to general public adequate, but investment in technological upgrades reduced by recession; bulk of service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave radio relay network
Domestic: microwave radio relay and multichannel cable; domestic satellite system being developed
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .th

Internet users: 1 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Thailand - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.775 billion (FY00)
Percent of gdp: 1.4% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Thailand - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 110 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 59
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 21
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17
With paved runways under 914 m: 4 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 51
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 16
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 34 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 59
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 11
15-24 to 2437 m: 21
914 to 1523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 51
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 16
Under 914 m: 34 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km

Railways
Total: 3,940 km
Narrow gauge: 3,940 km 1.000-m gauge (99 km double track)

Roadways

Waterways
Note: 3,701 km are navigable throughout the year by boats with drafts up to 0.9 meters; numerous minor waterways serve shallow-draft native craft

Merchant marine
Total: 294 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,845,972 GRT/2,923,914 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 36, cargo 133, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 1, container 14, liquefied gas 20, multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 61, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 5 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Thailand - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: parts of the border with Laos are indefinite; parts of border with Cambodia are indefinite; sporadic border hostilities with Burma over border alignment and ethnic Shan rebels operating in cross-border region

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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