Statistical information Tunisia 2001Tunisia

Map of Tunisia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Tunisia - Introduction 2001
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Background: Following independence from France in 1956 President Habib BOURGIUBA established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In recent years Tunisia has taken a moderate non-aligned stance in its foreign relations. Domestically it has sought to diffuse rising pressure for a more open political society.


Tunisia - Geography 2001
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Location: Northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Algeria and Libya

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 N 9 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 163,610 km²
Land: 155,360 km²
Water: 8,250 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries
Total: 1,424 km
Border countries: (2) Algeria 965 km; , Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1148 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate in north with mild rainy winters and hot dry summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
Extremes highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum phosphates iron ore lead zinc salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 19%
Permanent crops: 13%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 4%
Other: 44% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,850 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries particularly for oil exploration


Tunisia - People 2001
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Population: 9,705,102 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.15% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 6% (2000 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Tunisian
Adjective: Tunisian

Ethnic groups: Arab 98% European 1% Jewish and other 1%

Languages: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce) French (commerce)

Religions: Muslim 98% Christian 1% Jewish and other 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 28.74% (male 1,440,636; female 1,348,133)
15-64 years: 65.12% (male 3,157,988; female 3,161,596)
65 years and over: 6.14% (male 296,930; female 299,819) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.15% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.11 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.99 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.67 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and presents human health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.08 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.07 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male/female
Total population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 29.04 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.92 years
Male: 72.35 years
Female: 75.62 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 66.7%
Male: 78.6%
Female: 54.6% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Tunisia - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
Conventional short form: Tunisia
Local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
Local short form: Tunis

Government type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates; Ariana (Aryanah) Beja (Bajah) Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus) Bizerte (Banzart) El Kef (Al Kaf) Gabes (Qabis) Gafsa (Qafsah) Jendouba (Jundubah) Kairouan (Al Qayrawan) Kasserine (Al Qasrayn) Kebili (Qibili) Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah) Medenine (Madanin) Monastir (Al Munastir) Nabeul (Nabul) Sfax (Safaqis) Sidi Bou Zid (Sidi Bu Zayd) Siliana (Silyanah) Sousse (Susah) Tataouine (Tatawin) Tozeur (Tawzar) Tunis Zaghouan (Zaghwan)

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 20 March (1956)

Constitution: 1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 November 1999)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected for a third term without opposition; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI nearly 100%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - RCD 92%; seats by party - RCD 148, MDS 13, UDU 7, PUP 7, Al-Tajdid 5, PSL 2; note - reforms enabled opposition parties to win up to 20% of seats; the opposition increased number of seats from 19 to 34

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Al-Tajdid Movement [Adel CHAOUCH]; Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Constitutionnel Democratique) or RCD [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (official ruling party)]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mounir BEJI]; Movement of Democratic Socialists or MDS [Khamis CHAMMARI]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed Belhaj AMOR]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Abderrahmane TLILI]

International organization participation: ABEDA ACCT AfDB AFESD AL AMF AMU BSEC (observer) CCC ECA FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MIPONUH MONUC NAM OAS (observer) OAU OIC OPCW OSCE (partner) UN UN Security Council (temporary) UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMEE UNMIBH UNMIK UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Hatem ATALLAH
In the us chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,005
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Rust DEMMING
From the us embassy: 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [216] (1) 782-566
From the us fax: [216] (1) 789-719

Flag descriptionflag of Tunisia: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Tunisia - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Tunisia has a diverse economy with important agricultural mining energy tourism and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization simplification of the tax structure and a prudent approach to debt. Real growth averaged 5.5% in the past four years and inflation is slowing. Growth in tourism and increased trade have been key elements in this steady growth. Tunisia's association agreement with the European Union entered into force on 1 March 1998 the first such accord between the EU and Mediterranean countries to be activated. Under the agreement Tunisia will gradually remove barriers to trade with the EU over the next decade. Broader privatization further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment and improvements in government efficiency are among the challenges for the future.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 32%
Services: 54% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: olives olive oil grain dairy products tomatoes citrus fruit beef sugar beets dates almonds

Industries: petroleum mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore) tourism textiles footwear food beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (2000 est.)

Labor force
Note: shortage of skilled labor
By occupation services: 55%
By occupation industry: 23%
By occupation agriculture: 22% (1995 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.6% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 6% (2000 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.3%
Highest 10: 30.7% (1990)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $7.5 billion
Expenditures: $8.1 billion, including capital expenditures to $1.6 billion (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: textiles mechanical goods phosphates and chemicals agricultural products hydrocarbons
Partners: Germany 28% France 22% Italy 17% Belgium 5% Libya 4% (1999)

Imports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment hydrocarbons chemicals food
Partners: France 23% Germany 23% Italy 15% Belgium 3% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $13 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars per US dollar - 1.3753 (January 2001) 1.4667 (November 2000) 1.1862 (1999) 1.1387 (1998) 1.1059 (1997) 0.9734 (1996)


Tunisia - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9.173 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 99.2%
By source hydro: 0.8%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 8.677 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 19 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 165 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Tunisia - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 50,000 (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available
Domestic: trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay
International: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; two international gateway digital switches

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .tn

Internet users: 110,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Tunisia - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $356 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.5% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Tunisia - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 32 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 15
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 17
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 15
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 6
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 17
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742 km

Railways
Total: 2,168 km
Standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 1,687 km 1.000-m gauge
Dual gauge: 10 km 1.000-m and 1.435-m gauges (three rails)

Roadways

Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 149,554 GRT/156,861 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Tunisia - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Skytours


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