Statistical information Turkey 2001Turkey

Map of Turkey | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Turkey in the World
Turkey in the World

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Turkey - Introduction 2001
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Background: Turkey was created in 1923 from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace traditional religious fiats. In 1945 Turkey joined the UN and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. Turkey occupied the northern portion of Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island; relations between the two countries remain strained. Periodic military offensives against Kurdish separatists have dislocated part of the population in southeast Turkey and have drawn international condemnation.


Turkey - Geography 2001
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Location: southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe) bordering the Black Sea between Bulgaria and Georgia and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N 35 00 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Area
Total: 780,580 km²
Land: 770,760 km²
Water: 9,820 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,627 km
Border countries: (8) Armenia 268 km; , Azerbaijan 9 km; , Bulgaria 240 km; , Georgia 252 km; , Greece 206 km; , Iran 499 km; , Iraq 331 km; , Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Territorial sea: 6 NM in the Aegean Sea; 12 NM in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea

Climate: temperate; hot dry summers with mild wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources: antimony coal chromium mercury copper borate sulfur iron ore arable land: hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 32%
Permanent crops: 4%
Permanent pastures: 16%
Forests and woodland: 26%
Other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 36,740 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes especially in northern Turkey along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Geography
Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus Sea of Marmara Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas


Turkey - People 2001
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Population: 66,493,970 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.24% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Turk
Adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80% Kurdish 20%

Languages: Turkish (official) Kurdish Arabic Armenian Greek

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni) other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 28.42% (male 9,620,291; female 9,276,347)
15-64 years: 65.45% (male 22,116,599; female 21,401,165)
65 years and over: 6.13% (male 1,878,571; female 2,200,997) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.24% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.31 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.95 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male/female
Total population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 47.34 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.24 years
Male: 68.89 years
Female: 73.71 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 85%
Male: 94%
Female: 77% (2000)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Turkey - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Turkiye

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 80 provinces (iller singular - il); Adana Adiyaman Afyon Agri Aksaray Amasya Ankara Antalya Ardahan Artvin Aydin Balikesir Bartin Batman Bayburt Bilecik Bingol Bitlis Bolu Burdur Bursa Canakkale Cankiri Corum Denizli Diyarbakir Edirne Elazig Erzincan Erzurum Eskisehir Gaziantep Giresun Gumushane Hakkari Hatay Icel Igdir Isparta Istanbul Izmir Kahramanmaras Karabuk Karaman Kars Kastamonu Kayseri Kilis Kirikkale Kirklareli Kirsehir Kocaeli Konya Kutahya Malatya Manisa Mardin Mugla Mus Nevsehir Nigde Ordu Osmaniye Rize Sakarya Samsun Sanliurfa Siirt Sinop Sirnak Sivas Tekirdag Tokat Trabzon Tunceli Usak Van Yalova Yozgat Zonguldak; note - there may be another province called Duzce

Dependent areas

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day 29 October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Ahmed Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000)
Head of government: Prime Minister Bulent ECEVIT (since 11 January 1999)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
Note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next scheduled to be held NA May 2007); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 18 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DSP 136, MHP 130, FP 110, DYP 86, ANAP 88; note - as of 7 March 2000 seating was DSP 136, MHP 127, FP 103, DYP 85, ANAP 88 independents 6, vacancies 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeals (judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors)

Political parties and leaders
Note: Welfare Party or RP [Necmettin ERBAKAN] was officially outlawed on 22 February 1998

International organization participation: AsDB Australia Group BIS BSEC CCC CE CERN (observer) EAPC EBRD ECE ECO ESCAP EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IDB IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OIC OPCW OSCE PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNMIBH UNMIK UNOMIG UNRWA UNTAET UPU WEU (associate) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Baki ILKIN
In the us chancery: 2,525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 612-6,700
In the us fax: [1] (202) 612-6,744
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Robert PEARSON
From the us embassy: Ataturk Bulvarii 110, Ankara
From the us mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5,000, APO AE 9,823
From the us telephone: [90] (312) 468-6,110
From the us fax: [90] (312) 467-0019
From the us consulates general: Istanbul (closed as of December 2000 for security review)
From the us consulates: Adana (closed as of December 2000 for security review)

Flag descriptionflag of Turkey: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Turkey - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with traditional agriculture that still accounts for nearly 40% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry banking transport and communication. The most important industry - and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing which is almost entirely in private hands. In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in most years but this strong expansion was interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994 and 1999. Meanwhile the public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of GDP - due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments which now account for more than 40% of central government spending - while inflation has remained in the high double digit range. Perhaps because of these problems foreign direct investment in Turkey remains low - less than $1 billion annually. Prospects for the future are improving however because the ECEVIT government since June 1999 has been implementing an IMF-backed reform program including a tighter budget social security reform banking reorganization and accelerated privatization. As a result the fiscal situation is greatly improved and inflation has dropped below 40% - the lowest rate since 1987. The country experienced a financial crisis in late 2000 including sharp drops in the stock market and foreign exchange reserves but is recovering rapidly thanks to additional IMF support and the government's commitment to a specific timetable of economic reforms.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 15%
Industry: 29%
Services: 56% (1999)

Agriculture products: tobacco cotton grain olives sugar beets pulse citrus; livestock

Industries: textiles food processing autos mining (coal chromite copper boron) steel petroleum construction lumber paper

Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force
Note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (1999)
By occupation agriculture: 38%
By occupation services: 38%
By occupation industry: 24% (2000)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.6% (plus underemployment of 5.6%) (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.3%
Highest 10: 32.3% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $54.5 billion
Expenditures: $75.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.3 billion (2000)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 39% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $26.9 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: apparel 25.6% foodstuffs 15.4% textiles 12.3% metal manufactures 8.6% transport equipment 8.1% (1998)
Partners: Germany 18.7% US 11.4% UK 7.4% Italy 6.3% France 6.0% (2000 est.)

Imports: $55.7 billion (c.i.f. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery 28.3% chemicals 15.2% semi-finished goods 14.5% fuels 11% transport equipment 9.5% (1999)
Partners: Germany 13.1% Italy 7.9% US 7.2% Russia 7.0% France 6.6% UK 5.0% (2000 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $109 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Turkish liras per US dollar - 677,621 (December 2000) 625,219 (2000) 418,783 (1999) 260,724 (1998) 151,865 (1997) 81,405 (1996)


Turkey - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 125.3 billion kWh (2000 est.)
By source fossil fuel: 71%
By source hydro: 29%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (2000 est.)

Electricity consumption: 119.5 billion kWh (2000 est.)

Electricity exports: 350 million kWh (2000 est.)

Electricity imports: 3.35 billion kWh (2000 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Turkey - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 12.1 million (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially cellular telephones
Domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
International: international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia, by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .tr

Internet users: 2 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Turkey - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $10.6 billion (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 5.6% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Turkey - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 121 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 86
With paved runways over 3047 m: 16
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 29
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 19
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 16
With paved runways under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 35
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 26 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 86
Over 3047 m: 16
2438 to 3047 m: 29
15-24 to 2437 m: 19
914 to 1523 m: 16
Under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 35
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 26 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural gas 708 km

Railways
Total: 8,607 km
Standard gauge: 8,607 km 1.435-m gauge (1,524 km electrified) (1999)

Roadways

Waterways: 1200 km (approximately)

Merchant marine
Total: 548 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,617,302 GRT/9,088,451 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 140, cargo 242, chemical tanker 41, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 21, liquefied gas 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 43, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 25, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker 5 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Turkey - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: complex maritime air and territorial disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Greece; dispute with downstream riparian states (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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