Statistical information Venezuela 2001Venezuela

Map of Venezuela | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Venezuela in the World

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Venezuela - Introduction 2001
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Background: Venezuela was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border increasing internal drug consumption overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.


Venezuela - Geography 2001
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Location: Northern South America bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean between Colombia and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N 66 00 W

Map referenceSouth America Central America and the Caribbean

Area
Total: 912,050 km²
Land: 882,050 km²
Water: 30,000 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries
Total: 4,993 km
Border countries: (3) Brazil 2,200 km; , Colombia 2,050 km; , Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 15 NM
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas iron ore gold bauxite other minerals hydropower diamonds
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 34%
Other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1900 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to floods rockslides mudslides; periodic droughts

Geography
Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America


Venezuela - People 2001
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Population: 23,916,810 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.56% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 67% (1997 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Venezuelan
Adjective: Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: Spanish Italian Portuguese Arab German African indigenous people

Languages: Spanish (official) numerous indigenous dialects

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96% Protestant 2% other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 32.11% (male 3,962,517; female 3,716,880)
15-64 years: 63.17% (male 7,581,589; female 7,526,467)
65 years and over: 4.72% (male 515,687; female 613,670) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.56% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.65 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.92 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.15 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations
International agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Marine Dumping

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.08 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.07 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male/female
Total population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25.37 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.31 years
Male: 70.29 years
Female: 76.56 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.46 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.49% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 62,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 2000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 91.1%
Male: 91.8%
Female: 90.3% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Venezuela - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Conventional short form: Venezuela
Local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
Local short form: Venezuela

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions
Note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 30 December 1999

Legal system: based on organic laws as of July 1999; open adversarial court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Vice President Adina BASTIDAS Castillo; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Vice President Adina BASTIDAS Castillo; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 30 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2006)
Election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias elected president; percent of vote - 60%
Note: government coalition - Patriotic Pole or Polo Patriotico consists of MVR, MAS, and PPT

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 30 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)
Election results: Pro-government: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MVR 92, MAS 6, indigenous 3, other parties 7; Opposition: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AD 33, COPEI 6, Justice First 5, other parties 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)

Political parties and leaders: Brave Peoples Alliance or ABP [leader NA]; Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS Allup]; Fifth Republic Movement or MVR [leader Luis MIQUILENA]; Homeland for All or PPT [Pablo MEDINA]; Justice First [leader NA]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Felipe MUJICA]; National Convergence or Convergencia [Dr. Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez]; Radical Cause or La Causa R [Andres VELASQUEZ]; Social Christian Party or COPEI [Jose CURIEL]; Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Ronier]

International organization participation: CAN Caricom (observer) CCC CDB ECLAC FAO G- 3 G-11 G-15 G-19 G-24 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU LAES LAIA NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW OPEC PCA RG UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo TORO Hardy
In the us chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-2,214
In the us fax: [1] (202) 342-6,820
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donna J. HRINAK
From the us embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas 1080
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 62,291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34,037
From the us telephone: [58] (2) 975-6,411
From the us fax: [58] (2) 975-6,710

Flag descriptionflag of Venezuela: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) blue and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Venezuela - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: The petroleum sector dominates the economy accounting for roughly a third of GDP around 80% of export earnings and more than half of government operating revenues. Venezuelan officials estimate that GDP grew by 3.2% in 2000. A strong rebound in international oil prices fueled the recovery from the steep recession in 1999. Nevertheless a weak nonoil sector and capital flight undercut the recovery. The bolivar is widely believed to be overvalued by as much as 50%. The government is still rebuilding after massive flooding and landslides in December 1999 caused an estimated $15 billion to $20 billion in damage.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.2% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5%
Industry: 24%
Services: 71% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: corn sorghum sugarcane rice bananas vegetables coffee; beef pork milk eggs; fish

Industries: petroleum iron ore mining construction materials food processing textiles steel aluminum motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Labor force: 9.9 million (1999)
By occupation services: 64%
By occupation industry: 23%
By occupation agriculture: 13% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 14% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 67% (1997 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.5%
Highest 10: 35.6% (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $26.4 billion
Expenditures: $27 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 13% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $32.8 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: petroleum bauxite and aluminum steel chemicals agricultural products basic manufactures
Partners: US and Puerto Rico 57% Colombia Brazil Japan Germany Netherlands Italy (1999)

Imports: $14.7 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: raw materials machinery and equipment transport equipment construction materials
Partners: US 53% Japan Colombia Italy Germany France Brazil Canada (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $34 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivares per US dollar - 699.700 (January 2001) 679.960 (2000) 605.717 (1999) 547.556 (1998) 488.635 (1997) 417.333 (1996)


Venezuela - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 81.215 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 32.16%
By source hydro: 67.84%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 75.53 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Venezuela - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2 million (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: modern and expanding
Domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services
International: 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ve

Internet users: 400,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Venezuela - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $934 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 0.9% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Venezuela - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 371 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 124
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 12
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 32
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 59
With paved runways under 914 m: 17 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 247
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 10
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 97
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 140 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 124
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 12
15-24 to 2437 m: 32
914 to 1523 m: 59
Under 914 m: 17 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 247
15-24 to 2437 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 97
Under 914 m: 140 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km

Railways
Total: 584 km (248 km privately owned)
Standard gauge: 584 km 1.435-m gauge

Roadways

Waterways
Note: Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels

Merchant marine
Total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 490,160 GRT/897,694 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 10, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Venezuela - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo (river); maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Condor


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