Statistical information Zimbabwe 2001Zimbabwe

Map of Zimbabwe | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Zimbabwe in the World
Zimbabwe in the World


Zimbabwe - Introduction 2001
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Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated to keep whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE the nation's first prime minister has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.

Zimbabwe - Geography 2001
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Location: Southern Africa between South Africa and Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S 30 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 390,580 km²
Land: 386,670 km²
Water: 3,910 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries
Total: 3,066 km
Border countries: (4) Botswana 813 km; , Mozambique 1,231 km; , South Africa 225 km; , Zambia 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east

Extremes lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save rivers 162 m
Extremes highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m

Natural resources: coal chromium ore asbestos gold nickel copper iron ore vanadium lithium tin platinum group metals
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 13%
Forests and woodland: 23%
Other: 57% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1930 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare

Note: landlocked

Zimbabwe - People 2001
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Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.15% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Noun: Zimbabwean
Adjective: Zimbabwean

Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 71% Ndebele 16% other 11%) mixed and Asian 1% white less than 1%

Languages: English (official) Shona Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele sometimes called Ndebele) numerous but minor tribal dialects

Religions: syncretic (part Christian part indigenous beliefs) 50% Christian 25% indigenous beliefs 24% Muslim and other 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 38.68% (male 2,223,332; female 2,172,479)
15-64 years: 57.69% (male 3,319,982; female 3,236,286)
65 years and over: 3.63% (male 208,785; female 204,502) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.15% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.68 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 23.22 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate
Note: there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa in search of better paid employment

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male/female
Total population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 62.61 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 37.13 years
Male: 38.51 years
Female: 35.7 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.28 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 25.06% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 1.5 million (1999 est.)
Deaths: 160,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
Total population: 85%
Male: 90%
Female: 80% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Zimbabwe - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
Conventional short form: Zimbabwe
Former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo* Harare* Manicaland Mashonaland Central Mashonaland East Mashonaland West Masvingo Matabeleland North Matabeleland South Midlands

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly
Elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote; election last held 16-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2002); co-vice presidents appointed by the president
Election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of electoral college vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 92.7%, Abel MUZOREWA 4.8%; Ndabaningi SITHOLE 2.4%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 24-25 June 2000 (next to be held NA 2006)
Election results: percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 47.2%, MDC 45.6%, ZANU-Ndonga 0.7%, United Parties 0.7%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 63, MDC 56, ZANU-Ndonga 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; Popular Democratic Front or PDF [Austin CHAKAODZA]; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Ndabaningi SITHOLE]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert MUGABE]; Zimbabwe Unity Movement or ZUM [Edgar TEKERE]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Simbi Veke MUBAKO
In the us chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 332-7,100
In the us fax: [1] (202) 483-9,326
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Earl M. IRVING
From the us embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 3,340, Harare
From the us telephone: [263] (4) 250-593
From the us fax: [263] (4) 796,487

Flag descriptionflag of Zimbabwe: seven equal horizontal bands of green yellow red black red yellow and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Zimbabwe - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles to consolidate earlier moves to develop a market-oriented economy. Its involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo for example has already drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. Badly needed support from the IMF suffers delays in part because of the country's failure to meet budgetary goals. Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998 to 59% in 1999 and 60% in 2000. The economy is being steadily weakened by excessive government deficits and AIDS; Zimbabwe has the highest rate of infection in the world. Per capita GDP which is twice the average of the poorer sub-Saharan nations will increase little if any in the near-term and Zimbabwe will suffer continued frustrations in developing its agricultural and mineral resources.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -6.1% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 28%
Industry: 32%
Services: 40% (1997 est.)

Agriculture products: corn cotton tobacco wheat coffee sugarcane peanuts; cattle sheep goats pigs

Industries: mining (coal gold copper nickel tin clay numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores) steel wood products cement chemicals fertilizer clothing and footwear foodstuffs beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 5.5 million (2000 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 66%
By occupation services: 24%
By occupation industry: 10% (1996 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 50% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.8%
Highest 10: 46.9% (1990)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $2.5 billion
Expenditures: $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $279 million (FY96/97 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 60% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: tobacco 29% gold 7% ferroalloys 7% cotton 5% (1999 est.)
Partners: South Africa 10% UK 9% Malawi 8% Botswana 8% Japan 7% (1999 est.)

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment 35% other manufactures 18% chemicals 17% fuels 14% (1999 est.)
Partners: South Africa 46% UK 6% China 4% Germany 4% US 3% (1999 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.1 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar - 54.9451 (January 2001) 43.2900 (2000) 38.3142 (1999) 21.4133 (1998) 11.8906 (1997) 9.9206 (1996)

Zimbabwe - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.78 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 69.98%
By source hydro: 30.02%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 6.939 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 1.564 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Zimbabwe - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 70,000 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines
Domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .zw

Internet users: 30,000 (1999)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Zimbabwe - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $127 million (FY99/00)
Percent of gdp: 3.1% (FY99/00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Zimbabwe - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 455 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 18
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 9 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 437
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 209
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 224 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 18
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 9 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 437
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 209
Under 914 m: 224 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km

Total: 2,759 km (1995)
Narrow gauge: 2,759 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified; 42 km double track) (1995 est.)


Waterways: the Mazoe and Zambezi rivers are used for transporting chrome ore from Harare to Mozambique

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Zimbabwe - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Undercover Tourist

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