Algeria 2002Algeria

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Algeria
Algeria 

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Algeria - Introduction 2002
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Background: After a century of rule by France Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene crack down on the FIS and postpone the subsequent elections. The FIS response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. FIS's armed wing the Islamic Salvation Army disbanded itself in January 2000 and many armed militants surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless residual fighting continues. Other concerns include Berber unrest large-scale unemployment a shortage of housing and the need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.


Algeria - Geography 2002
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Location: Northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N 3 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 2,381,740 km²
Water: 0 km²
Land: 2,381,740 km²
Comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 6,343 km
Border countries: (7) Libya 982 km; , Mali 1,376 km; , Mauritania 463 km; , Morocco 1,559 km; , Niger 956 km; , Tunisia 965 km; , Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild wet winters with hot dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
Extremes highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas iron ore phosphates uranium lead zinc
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3.21%
Permanent crops: 0.21%
Other: 96.58% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,600 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season

Geography
Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)


Algeria - People 2002
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Population: 32,277,942 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 1.68% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Algerian
Adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99% European less than 1%

Languages: Arabic (official) French Berber dialects

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99% Christian and Jewish 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 33.5% (male 5,512,369; female 5,311,914)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 10,175,135; female 9,950,315)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 610,643; female 717,566) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.68% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 22.34 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.15 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage petroleum refining wastes and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea in particular becoming polluted from oil wastes soil erosion and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.04 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male/female
Total population: 1.02 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 39.15 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.24 years
Female: 71.67 years (2002 est.)
Male: 68.87 years

Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 61.6%
Male: 73.9%
Female: 49% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Algeria - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Conventional short form: Algeria
Local short form: Al Jaza'ir
Local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas singular - wilaya); Adrar Ain Defla Ain Temouchent Alger Annaba Batna Bechar Bejaia Biskra Blida Bordj Bou Arreridj Bouira Boumerdes Chlef Constantine Djelfa El Bayadh El Oued El Tarf Ghardaia Guelma Illizi Jijel Khenchela Laghouat Mascara Medea Mila Mostaganem M'Sila Naama Oran Ouargla Oum el Bouaghi Relizane Saida Setif Sidi Bel Abbes Skikda Souk Ahras Tamanghasset Tebessa Tiaret Tindouf Tipaza Tissemsilt Tizi Ouzou Tlemcen

Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Revolution Day 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976 effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988 23 February 1989 and 28 November 1996

Legal system: socialist based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister Ali BENFLIS (since 26 August 2000)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud

Legislative branch
Elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2003)
Election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders
Note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA AfDB AFESD AL AMF AMU CCC ECA FAO G-15 G-19 G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MONUC NAM OAPEC OAS (observer) OAU OIC OPCW OPEC OSCE (partner) UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMEE UPU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY
In the us chancery: 2,118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us fax: [1] (202) 667-2,174
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 265-2,800
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Janet A. SANDERSON
From the us embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
From the us mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16,000 Algiers
From the us telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186
From the us fax: [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag descriptionflag of Algeria: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent star and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Algeria - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues 30% of GDP and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s in part because of policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances in 2000 and 2001 benefited from the temporary spike in oil prices and the government's tight fiscal policy leading to a large increase in the trade surplus record highs in foreign exchange reserves and reduction in foreign debt. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. In 2001 the government signed an Association Treaty with the European Union that will eventually lower tariffs and increase trade.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.8% (2001 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 17%
Industry: 33%
Services: 50% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat barley oats grapes olives citrus fruits; sheep cattle

Industries: petroleum natural gas light industries mining electrical petrochemical food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2001 est.)

Labor force: 9.4 million (2001 est.)
By occupation government: 29%
By occupation agriculture: 25%
By occupation construction and public works: 15%
By occupation industry: 11%
By occupation other: 20% (1996 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 34% (2001 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 4%
Highest 10: 25% (1995) (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index: 35 (1995)

Budget
Revenues: $20.3 billion
Expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3% (2001 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $19.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: petroleum natural gas and petroleum products 97%
Partners: Italy 23% Spain 13% US 13% France 11% Brazil 7% (2000)

Imports: $10.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: capital goods food and beverages consumer goods
Partners: France 29% US 9% Italy 8% Germany 6% Spain 5% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $24.7 billion (2001 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars per US dollar - 77.889 (January 2002) 77.215 (2001) 75.260 (2000) 66.574 (1999) 58.739 (1998) 57.707 (1997)


Algeria - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 23.556 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 21.847 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 210 million kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 150 million kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Algeria - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
Domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned)
International: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .dz

Internet users: 180,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Algeria - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.87 billion (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 4.1% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Algeria - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 136 (2001)
With paved runways total: 54
With paved runways over 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 27
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 12
With unpaved runways total: 82
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 23
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 19 (2002)
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 38

Airports with paved runways
Total: 54
Over 3047 m: 9
2438 to 3047 m: 27
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 12

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 82
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 23
Under 914 m: 19 (2002)
914 to 1523 m: 38

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Railways
Total: 4,820 km
Standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km double-track)
Narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge (1999 est.)

Roadways

Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,944 GRT/1,051,433 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 25, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals


Algeria - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya; Algeria supports exiled West Saharan Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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