Antigua and Barbuda 2002Antigua%20and%20Barbuda

 Antigua and Barbuda | | | | | |
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Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda 


Antigua and Barbuda - Introduction 2002
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Background: The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2,400 B.C. but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Antigua and Barbuda - Geography 2002
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Location: Caribbean islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N 61 48 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Total: 443 km² (Antigua 280 km²; Barbuda 161 km²)
Water: 0 km²
Note: includes Redonda, 1.6 km²
Land: 442 km²
Comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas

Extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 18.18%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 81.82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Note: Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

Antigua and Barbuda - People 2002
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Population: 67,448 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 0.69% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Antiguan, Barbudan
Adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black British Portuguese Lebanese Syrian

Languages: English (official) local dialects

Religions: Christian (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant and some Roman Catholic)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 28% (male 9,618; female 9,293)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 22,695; female 22,682)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,289; female 1,871) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.69% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 18.84 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.75 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.23 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production causing rainfall to run off quickly
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male/female
Total population: 0.99 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 21.61 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.02 years
Female: 73.45 years (2002 est.)
Male: 68.72 years

Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: NA%
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
Total population: 89%
Male: 90%
Female: 88% (1960 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Antigua and Barbuda - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type: constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda* Redonda* Saint George Saint John Saint Mary Saint Paul Saint Peter Saint Philip

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (National Day) 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
Head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Robin YEARWOOD

Legislative branch
Election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 53.2%, UPP 45.5%, independent 1.3%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1
Elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held prior to March 2004)

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
In the us chancery: 3,216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,016
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 362-5,211
In the us fax: [1] (202) 362-5,225
In the us consulates general: Miami
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag descriptionflag of Antigua%20and%20Barbuda: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top) light blue and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Antigua and Barbuda - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Tourism continues to dominate the economy accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy however and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction work. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding handicrafts and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world especially in the US which accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 4%
Industry: 19%
Services: 77% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: cotton fruits vegetables bananas coconuts cucumbers mangoes sugarcane; livestock

Industries: tourism construction light manufacturing (clothing alcohol household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 30,000
By occupation commerce and services: 82%
By occupation agriculture: 11%
By occupation industry: 7% (1983) (1983)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $123.7 million
Expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 0.4% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $40 million (2000 est.)
Commodities: petroleum products 48% manufactures 23% machinery and transport equipment 17% food and live animals 4% other 8%
Partners: OECS 26% Barbados 15% Guyana 4% Trinidad and Tobago 2% US 0.3%

Imports: $357 million (2000 est.)
Commodities: food and live animals machinery and transport equipment manufactures chemicals oil
Partners: US 27% UK 16% Canada 4% OECS 3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $231 million (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Antigua and Barbuda - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 100 million kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 93 million kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Antigua and Barbuda - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 1300 (1996)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: good automatic telephone system
International: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ag

Internet users: 5,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Antigua and Barbuda - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Antigua and Barbuda - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3 (2001)
With paved runways total: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 1
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)



Total: 77 km
Narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 762 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,541,940 GRT/5,894,553 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 469, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk 4, container 202, liquefied gas 7, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 35
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba 1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6, South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Antigua and Barbuda - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center


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