Bahrain 2002Bahrain

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Bahrain - Introduction 2002
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Background: Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir installed in 1999 has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001 Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program. In February 2002 Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In local elections held in May 2002 Bahraini women were allowed to vote and run for office for the first time.

Bahrain - Geography 2002
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Location: Middle East archipelago in the Persian Gulf east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N 50 33 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Total: 665 km²
Water: 0 km²
Land: 665 km²
Comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM
Continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate: arid; mild pleasant winters; very hot humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
Extremes highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil associated and nonassociated natural gas fish pearls
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4.35%
Permanent crops: 4.35%
Other: 91.3% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 50 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

Bahrain - People 2002
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Note: includes 228,424 non-nationals (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 1.67% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Bahraini
Adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63% Asian 19% other Arab 10% Iranian 8%

Languages: Arabic English Farsi Urdu

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70% Sunni Muslim 30%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 29.2% (male 97,022; female 94,605)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 261,919; female 182,727)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 10,230; female 9,894) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.67% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 19.53 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 3.95 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.09 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land: periods of drought and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines coral reefs and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers oil refineries and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 1.43 male/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male/female
Total population: 1.29 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 19.18 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.47 years
Female: 75.96 years (2002 est.)
Male: 71.05 years

Total fertility rate: 2.75 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.5%
Male: 91.6%
Female: 84.2% (2002 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bahrain - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
Conventional short form: Bahrain
Local short form: Al Bahrayn
Former: Dilmun
Local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

Government type: constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions
Note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection

Constitution: adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised constitution calls for a partially elected legislature a constitutional monarchy and an independent judiciary)

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
Head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
Elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch
Elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held NA 2006)
Note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002
Election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote - NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited but politically oriented nongovernment organizations are allowed


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA
In the us chancery: 3,502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us consulates general: New York
In the us fax: [1] (202) 362-2,192
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
From the us embassy: Building #979, Road 3,119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 9,834-5,100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26,431, Manama
From the us telephone: [973] 273-300
From the us fax: [973] 272-594

Flag descriptionflag of Bahrain: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bahrain - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: In Bahrain petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts 60% of government revenues and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil revenue granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment especially among the young and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (2001 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1%
Industry: 35%
Services: 64% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: fruit vegetables; poultry dairy products; shrimp fish

Industries: petroleum processing and refining aluminum smelting offshore banking ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force
Note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.) (1998 est.)
By occupation: industry commerce and service 79% government 20% agriculture 1% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.8 billion
Expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2002 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.5% (2001 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.5 billion (2001)
Commodities: petroleum and petroleum products aluminum textiles
Partners: India 8.4% US 3.9% Saudi Arabia 3.4% Japan 2.8% South Korea 2.1% (2000)

Imports: $4.5 billion (2001)
Commodities: crude oil machinery chemicals
Partners: Saudi Arabia 28.7% US 12.5% UK 6.6% France 6% Japan 4% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.8 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.3760 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

Bahrain - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.765 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 5,361 million kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bahrain - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 58,543 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: modern system
Domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
International: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .bh

Internet users: 140,200 (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bahrain - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $526.2 million (FY01)
Percent of gdp: 6.7% (FY01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bahrain - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4 (2001)
With paved runways total: 3
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 3
Over 3047 m: 2 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km

Railways: 0 km


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 270,784 GRT/384,561 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4, container 2, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Bahrain - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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