Bolivia 2002Bolivia

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Bolivia - Introduction 2002
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Background: Bolivia named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty social unrest and drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment strengthening the educational system continuing the privatization program and waging an anticorruption campaign.

Bolivia - Geography 2002
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Location: Central South America southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S 65 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 1,098,580 km²
Water: 14,190 km²
Land: 1,084,390 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries
Total: 6,743 km
Border countries: (5) Argentina 832 km; , Brazil 3,400 km; , Chile 861 km; , Paraguay 750 km; , Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano) hills lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Extremes lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
Extremes highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources: tin natural gas petroleum zinc tungsten antimony silver iron lead gold timber hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1.73%
Permanent crops: 0.21%
Other: 98.06% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 1280 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m) with Peru

Bolivia - People 2002
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Population: 8,445,134 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 1.69% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 70% (1999 est.)

Noun: Bolivian
Adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30% mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30% Aymara 25% white 15%

Languages: Spanish (official) Quechua (official) Aymara (official)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 37.8% (male 1,626,596; female 1,565,124)
15-64 years: 57.7% (male 2,383,852; female 2,491,823)
65 years and over: 4.5% (male 169,583; female 208,156) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.69% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 26.41 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 8.05 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.42 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 57.52 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.42 years
Female: 67.1 years (2002 est.)
Male: 61.86 years

Total fertility rate: 3.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 4,200 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 380 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 83.1%
Male: 90.5%
Female: 76% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bolivia - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
Conventional short form: Bolivia
Local short form: Bolivia
Local long form: Republica de Bolivia

Government type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos singular - departamento); Chuquisaca Cochabamba Beni La Paz Oruro Pando Potosi Santa Cruz Tarija

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante (since 4 August 2002); Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 4 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante (since 4 August 2002); Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 4 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)
Election results: the new president was chosen by Congress, a result of no candidate winning a majority in the 30 June 2002 election; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada 84, Evo MORALES 43

Legislative branch
Elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)
Election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders
Note: the ADN, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero
In the us chancery: 3,014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us consulates general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco
In the us fax: [1] (202) 328-3,712
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 483-4,410
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE
From the us embassy: Avenida Arce 2,780, San Jorge, La Paz
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34,032
From the us telephone: [591] (2) 2,430,120, 2,430,251
From the us fax: [591] (2) 2,433,900

Flag descriptionflag of Bolivia: three equal horizontal bands of red (top) yellow and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bolivia - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Bolivia long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries has made considerable progress toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) as well as the privatization of the state airline telephone company railroad electric power company and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999 in part due to tight government budget policies which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000 major civil disturbances in April and again in September and October held down overall growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth is expected to pick up in 2002 but the fiscal deficit and debt burden will remain high.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0% (2001 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 31%
Services: 55% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: soybeans coffee coca cotton corn sugarcane rice potatoes; timber

Industries: mining smelting petroleum food and beverages tobacco handicrafts clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (1998) (1998)

Labor force: 2.5 million
By occupation agriculture: NA%
By occupation industry: NA%
By occupation services: NA%
Labor force

Unemployment rate
Note: widespread underemployment (2000)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 70% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1%
Highest 10: 46% (1997) (1997)

Distribution of family income gini index: 59 (1997)

Revenues: $4 billion
Expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 2% (2001 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.2 billion (2001 est.)
Commodities: soybeans natural gas zinc gold wood
Partners: US 32% Colombia 18% UK 15% Brazil 15% Peru 6% (2000)

Imports: $1.5 billion (2001 est.)
Commodities: capital goods raw materials and semi-manufactures chemicals petroleum food
Partners: US 24% Argentina 17% Brazil 15% Chile 9% Peru 5% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.8 billion (2001 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivianos per US dollar - 6.8613 (January 2002) 6.6069 (2001) 6.1835 (2000) 5.8124 (1999) 5.5101 (1998) 5.2543 (1997)

Bolivia - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.87 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 48%
By source hydro: 50%
By source other: 2% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 3.605 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 5 million kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 11 million kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bolivia - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 116,000 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly
Domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .bo

Internet users: 78,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bolivia - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $147 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.8% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bolivia - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1109 (2001)
With paved runways total: 12
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 1,069 1,096
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3 4
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 64 65
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 225 236
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 776 790 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 12
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 1,069 1,096
Over 3047 m: 1 1
2438 to 3047 m: 3 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 64 65
914 to 1523 m: 225 236
Under 914 m: 776 790 (2002)


Pipelines: crude oil 1800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1495 km

Total: 3,691 km
Narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995 est.)


Waterways: 10,000 km (commercially navigable)

Merchant marine
Total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 196,399 GRT/320,137 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 15, chemical tanker 2, container 1, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 2
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of Belize 2, China 2, Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2, Liberia 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 5, United States 1 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Bolivia - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: continues to demand a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama region was lost to Chile in 1884

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 24,400 hectares under cultivation in June 2002 a 23% increase from June 2001; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia Brazil Argentina and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop programs under the SANCHEZ DE LOZADA administration have been unable to keep pace with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation after significant reductions in 1998 and 1999; money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade especially along the borders with Brazil and Paraguay

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