Czech Republic 2002Czech%20Republic

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Czech Republic
Czech Republic 

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Czech Republic - Introduction 2002
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Background: Following the First World War the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968 an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create 'socialism with a human face.' Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989 Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful 'Velvet Revolution.' On 1 January 1993 the country underwent a 'velvet divorce' into its two national components the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO the Czech Republic has moved toward integration in world markets a development that poses both opportunities and risks. In December 2002 the Czech Republic was invited to join the European Union (EU). It is expected that the Czech Republic will accede to the EU in 2004.


Czech Republic - Geography 2002
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Location: Central Europe southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N 15 30 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 78,866 km²
Water: 1,590 km²
Land: 77,276 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries
Total: 1,881 km
Border countries: (4) Austria 362 km; , Germany 646 km; , Poland 658 km; , Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold cloudy humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains hills and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
Extremes highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal soft coal kaolin clay graphite timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 40%
Permanent crops: 3.04%
Other: 56.96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe


Czech Republic - People 2002
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Population: 10,256,760 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: -0.07% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Czech
Adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups: Czech 81.2% Moravian 13.2% Slovak 3.1% Polish 0.6% German 0.5% Silesian 0.4% Roma 0.3% Hungarian 0.2% other 0.5% (1991)

Languages: Czech

Religions: atheist 39.8% Roman Catholic 39.2% Protestant 4.6% Orthodox 3% other 13.4%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 828,273; female 786,617)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 3,605,766; female 3,603,058)
65 years and over: 14% (male 551,852; female 881,194) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.07% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 9.08 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 10.76 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.96 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male/female
Total population: 0.95 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5.46 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.95 years
Female: 78.65 years (2002 est.)
Male: 71.46 years

Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 2,200 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: NA
Total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Czech Republic - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Czech Republic
Conventional short form: Czech Republic
Local short form: Ceska Republika
Local long form: Ceska Republika

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (kraje singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj Jihomoravsky Kraj Karlovarsky Kraj Kralovehradecky Kraj Liberecky Kraj Moravskoslezsky Kraj Olomoucky Kraj Pardubicky Kraj Plzensky Kraj Praha* Stredocesky Kraj Ustecky Kraj Vysocina Zlinsky Kraj

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday: Czech Founding Day 28 October (1918)

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)
Note: the Czech Republic's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 February 2003 having served exactly 10 years; parliament finally elected a successor after two inconclusive elections in January 2003 and three rounds of balloting on 28 February 2003
Head of government: Prime Minister Vladimir SPIDLA (since 12 July 2002), Deputy Prime Ministers Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 22 July 1998), Cyril SVOBODA (since July 2002), Stanislav GROSS (since July 2002), Petr MARES (since July 2002)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 February 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; last successful election held 28 February 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 January 2003 were inconclusive); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ODS 26, KDU-CSL 14, CSSD 11, US 9, KSCM 3, independents 18; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 30.2%, ODS 24.5%, KSCM 18.5%, KDU-CSL & US-DEU coalition 14.3%, other minor 12.5%; seats by party - CSSD 70, ODS 58, KSCM 41, KDU-CSL 21, US-DEU 10
Elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 25-26 October and 1-2 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14-15 June 2002 (next to be held by NA June 2006)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term

Political parties and leaders: Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Cyril SVOBODA chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Michael ZANTOVSKY chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jan SULA chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Petr MARES chairman]; Quad Coalition [Karel KUHNL chairman] (includes KDU-CSL US ODA DEU)

International organization participation: ACCT (observer) Australia Group BIS CCC CE CEI CERN EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MONUC NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE PCA PFP UN UNAMSIL UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMEE UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOP UNMOT UNOMIG UPU WCL WEU (associate) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Martin PALOUS
In the us chancery: 3,900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
In the us fax: [1] (202) 966-8,540
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 363-6,315
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Craig R. STAPLETON
From the us embassy: Trziste 15, 118 #01 Prague 1
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [420] (2) 5,753-0663
From the us fax: [420] (2) 5,753-0583

Flag descriptionflag of Czech%20Republic: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Czech Republic - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Basically one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-02 was led by exports to the EU especially Germany and foreign investment while domestic demand is reviving. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could be future problems. Unemployment is gradually declining as job creation continues in the rebounding economy. Inflation is moderate. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in preparations for accession which will give further impetus and direction to structural reform. Moves to complete banking telecommunications and energy privatization will encourage additional foreign investment while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.6% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 4%
Industry: 41%
Services: 56% (2001)

Agriculture products: wheat potatoes sugar beets hops fruit; pigs poultry

Industries: metallurgy machinery and equipment motor vehicles glass armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2002)

Labor force: 5.203 million (1999 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 5%
By occupation industry: 35%
By occupation services: 60% (2001 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.5% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 4%
Highest 10: 22% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index: 25 (1996)

Budget
Revenues: $16.7 billion
Expenditures: $18 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 2.2% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $38 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment 44% intermediate manufactures 25% chemicals 7% raw materials and fuel 7% (2000)
Partners: Germany 35.4% Slovakia 7.3% UK 5.5% Austria 5.3% Poland 5.2% (2001)

Imports: $41.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment 40% intermediate manufactures 21% raw materials and fuels 13% chemicals 11% (2000)
Partners: Germany 32.9% Slovakia 6.4% Russia 6.0% Italy 5.8% Austria 4.6% (2001)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $24.6 billion (2001)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: koruny per US dollar - 36.325 (January 2002) 38.035 (2001) 38.598 (2000) 34.569 (1999) 32.281 (1998) 31.698 (1997)


Czech Republic - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 69.589 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 78%
By source hydro: 3%
By source other: 1% (2000)
By source nuclear: 19%

Electricity consumption: 54.701 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 18.74 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 8.725 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Czech Republic - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 4.346 million (2000)

Telephone system
General assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous
Domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .cz

Internet users: 2.69 million (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Czech Republic - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1190.2 million (FY01)
Percent of gdp: 2.1% (FY01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Czech Republic - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 121 (2001)
With paved runways total: 44
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 17 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 14
With unpaved runways total: 76
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 27
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 48 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 44
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 9
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 17 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 14

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 76
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 27
Under 914 m: 48 (2002)

Heliports: 2 (2002)

Pipelines: natural gas 3,550 km (2000)

Railways
Total: 9,444 km
Standard gauge: 9,350 km 1.435-m gauge (2,843 km electrified; 1,929 km double-track)
Narrow gauge: 94 km 0.760-m gauge (2000 est.)

Roadways

Waterways
Note: (the Labe (Elbe) is the principal river) (2000)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Czech Republic - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1600 km² of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech Republic over the Temelin nuclear power plant and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking organized crime


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