East Timor 2002East%20Timor

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East Timor
East Timor 


East Timor - Introduction 2002
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Background: The Portuguese colony of Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was subsequently incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of Timor Timur. A so-called campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades during which time an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives. On 30 August 1999 in a UN-supervised popular referendum the people of Timor Timur voted for independence from Indonesia. On 20 May 2002 East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state and the world's newest democracy.

East Timor - Geography 2002
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Location: Southeastern Asia northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco

Geographic coordinates: 8 50 S 125 55 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 15,007 km²
Land: NA km²
Water: NA km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries
Total: 228 km
Border countries: (1) Indonesia 228 km

Coastline: 706 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: NA NM
Extended fishing zone: NA NM
Territorial sea: NA NM
Exclusive fishing zone: NA NM
Continental shelf: NA NM
Exclusive economic zone: NA NM

Climate: tropical; hot humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons

Terrain: mountainous

Extremes lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m

Natural resources: gold petroleum natural gas manganese marble
Land use

Land use
Arable land: NA%
Other: NA%
Permanent crops: NA%

Irrigated land: 1065 km² (est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: floods and landslides are common; earthquakes tsunamis tropical cyclones

Note: Timor is the Malay word for 'Orient'; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands

East Timor - People 2002
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Note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (2002 est.)
Growth rate: 7.26% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 42% (2002 est.)

Noun: Timorese
Adjective: Timorese

Ethnic groups: Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) Papuan small Chinese minority

Note: there are a total of about 16 indigenous languages, of which Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people

Religions: Roman Catholic 90% Muslim 4% Protestant 3% Hindu 0.5% Buddhist Animist (1992 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure: NA

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 7.26% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 28.07 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 6.52 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 51.07 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
International agreements: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio: NA

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 51.99 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.85 years
Male: 62.64 years
Female: 67.17 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.88 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: NA
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 48% (2001)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

East Timor - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
Conventional short form: East Timor
Local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
Former: Portuguese Timor
Local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]

Government type: republic

Capital: Dili

Administrative divisions: 13 administrative districts; Aileu Ainaro Baucau Bobonaro (Maliana) Cova-Lima (Suai) Dili Ermera Lautem (Los Palos) Liquica Manatuto Manufahi (Same) Oecussi (Ambeno) Viqueque

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 November 1975 (date of proclamation of independence from Portugal); note - 20 May 2002 is the official date of international recognition of East Timor's independence from Indonesia

National holiday: Independence Day 28 November (1975)

Constitution: 22 March 2002 (based on the Portuguese model)

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Jose Alexander GUSMAO (since 20 May 2002); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto some legislation
Head of government: Prime Minister Mari Bin Amude ALKATIRI (since 20 May 2002)
Cabinet: Council of State
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2007); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
Election results: Jose Alexander GUSMAO elected president; percent of vote - Jose Alexander GUSMAO 82.7%, Francisco Xavier do Amaral 17.3%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 30 August 2001 (next to be held NA August 2006)
Election results: percent of vote by party - FRETILIN 57.37%, PD 8.72%, PSD 8.18%, ASDT 7.84%, UDT 2.36%, PNT 2.21%, KOTA 2.13%, PPT 2.01%, PDC 1.98%, PST 1.78%, independents/other 5.42%; seats by party - FRETILIN 55, PD 7, PSD 6, ASDT 6, PDC 2, UDT 2, KOTA 2, PNT 2, PPT 2, UDC/PDC 1, PST 1, PL 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice one judge appointed by the National Parliament and the rest appointed by the Superior Council for the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Associacao Social-Democrata Timorense or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Christian Democratic Party of Timor or PDC [Antonio XIMENES]; Christian Democratic Union of Timor or UDC [Vicente da Silva GUTERRES]; Democratic Pary or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; Maubere Democratic Party or PDM [leader NA]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor or FRETILIN [Lu OLO]; Social Democrat Party of East Timor or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Socialist Party of Timor or PST [leader NA]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes) or KOTA [Clementino dos Reis AMARAL]; Timor Democratic Union or UDT [Joao CARRASCALAO]; Timor Labor Party or TRABALHISTA [Paulo Freitas DA SILVA]; Timorese Nationalist Party or PNT [Abilio ARAUJO]; Timorese Popular Democratic Association or APODETI [Frederico Almeida Santos COSTA]

International organization participation
Note: UN membership is expected in September

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Jose Luis GUTERRES
In the us chancery: NA
In the us consulates general: NA
In the us fax: NA
In the us telephone: NA
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Grover Joseph REES
From the us embassy: Avenido do Portugal, Farol, Dili
From the us mailing address: NA
From the us telephone: (670) 390 324 684
From the us fax: (670) 390 313 206

Flag descriptionflag of East%20Timor: red with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; there is a white star in the center of the black triangle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

East Timor - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: In late 1999 about 70% of the economic infrastructure of East Timor was laid waste by Indonesian troops and anti-independence militias and 260,000 people fled westward. Over the next three years however a massive international program manned by 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1300 police officers led to substantial reconstruction in both urban and rural areas. By mid-2002 all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned. The country faces great challenges in continuing the rebuilding of infrastructure and the strengthening of the infant civil administration. One promising long-term project would be development of oil resources in nearby waters.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 18% (2001 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 25%
Industry: 17%
Services: 57% (2001)

Agriculture products: coffee rice maize cassava sweet potatoes soybeans cabbage mangoes bananas vanilla

Industries: printing soap manufacturing handicrafts woven cloth

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5%

Labor force: NA
By occupation: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 50% (including underemployment)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 42% (2002 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index: 38

Revenues: $NA
Expenditures: $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: NA%

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $8 million (2001 est.)
Commodities: coffee sandalwood marble; note - the potential for oil and vanilla exports
Partners: NA

Imports: $237 million (2001 est.)
Commodities: NA
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates

East Timor - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: NA kWh
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: NA kWh

Electricity exports: 0 kWh

Electricity imports: 0 kWh

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

East Timor - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .tp

Internet users: NA

Broadband fixed subscriptions

East Timor - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $4.4 million (FY03)
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

East Timor - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 8 (2001)
With paved runways total: 3 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2427 m: 1 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 5 5
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 3 3
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2427 m: 1 1
914 to 1523 m: 1 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 5 5
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Pipelines: NA

Railways: 0 km


Waterways: NA

Merchant marine
Total: NA
Ships by type: NA

Ports and terminals

East Timor - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meets to survey and delimit land boundary; Indonesia seeks resolution of East Timor refugees in Indonesia; Australia-East Timor-Indonesia are working to resolve maritime boundary and sharing of seabed resources in 'Timor Gap'

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA


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