Ecuador 2002Ecuador

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Volotea Air

Ecuador - Introduction 2002
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Background: The 'Republic of the Equator' was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.

Ecuador - Geography 2002
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Location: Western South America bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S 77 30 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 283,560 km²
Note: includes Galapagos Islands
Water: 6,720 km²
Land: 276,840 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries
Total: 2,010 km
Border countries: (2) Colombia 590 km; , Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
Territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain: coastal plain (costa) inter-Andean central highlands (sierra) and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum fish timber hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5.69%
Permanent crops: 5.15%
Other: 89.16% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 8,650 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes landslides volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts

Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Ecuador - People 2002
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Population: 13,447,494 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 1.96% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 70% (2001 est.)

Noun: Ecuadorian
Adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65% Amerindian 25% Spanish and others 7% black 3%

Languages: Spanish (official) Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 35.4% (male 2,415,764; female 2,337,095)
15-64 years: 60.2% (male 4,007,495; female 4,090,957)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 276,482; female 319,701) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.96% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 25.47 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.36 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.53 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Galapagos Islands
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male/female
Total population: 0.99 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 33.02 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.61 years
Female: 74.57 years (2002 est.)
Male: 68.79 years

Total fertility rate: 3.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2001)
People living with hivaids: 20,000 (2001 est.)
Deaths: 232 (2001)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 90.1%
Male: 92%
Female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ecuador - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
Conventional short form: Ecuador
Local short form: Ecuador
Local long form: Republica del Ecuador

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias singular - provincia); Azuay Bolivar Canar Carchi Chimborazo Cotopaxi El Oro Esmeraldas Galapagos Guayas Imbabura Loja Los Rios Manabi Morona-Santiago Napo Orellana Pastaza Pichincha Sucumbios Tungurahua Zamora-Chinchipe

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day (independence of Quito) 10 August (1809)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65 optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)
Head of government: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Election results: results of the 24 November 2002 runoff election - Lucio GUTIERREZ elected president; percent of vote - Lucio GUTIERREZ 54.3%; Alvaro NOBOA 45.7%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held 20 October 2002)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Jacinto JIJON Y CAMANO]; Independent National Movement or MIN [Eliseo AZUERO]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Miguel LLUCO]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
In the us fax: [1] (202) 667-3,482
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-7,200
In the us chancery: 2,535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie Anne KENNEY
From the us embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
From the us mailing address: APO AA 34,039
From the us telephone: [593] (2) 256-2,890
From the us fax: [593] (2) 250-2,052
From the us consulates general: Guayaquil

Flag descriptionflag of Ecuador: three horizontal bands of yellow (top double width) blue and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ecuador - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such as oil bananas and shrimp fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996 but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. The aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector collapse which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a 70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999 which forced a desperate government to 'dollarize' the currency regime in 2000. The move stabilized the currency but did not stave off the ouster of the government. Gustavo NOBOA who assumed the presidency in January 2000 has managed to pass substantial economic reforms and mend relations with international financial institutions. Ecuador completed its first standby agreement since 1986 when the IMF Board approved a 10 December 2001 disbursement of $96 million the final installment of a $300 million standby credit agreement.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.3% (2001 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 11%
Industry: 25%
Services: 64% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: bananas coffee cocoa rice potatoes manioc (tapioca) plantains sugarcane; cattle sheep pigs beef pork dairy products; balsa wood; fish shrimp

Industries: petroleum food processing textiles metal work paper products wood products chemicals plastics fishing lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2001 est.)

Labor force: 3.7 million (urban)
By occupation agriculture: 30%
By occupation industry: 25%
By occupation services: 45% (2001 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 14%; note - widespread underemployment (2001 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 70% (2001 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2%
Highest 10: 34% (1995) (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index: 44 (1995)

Revenues: $5.6 billion
Expenditures: planned $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 22% (2001 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.8 billion (2001 est.)
Commodities: petroleum bananas shrimp coffee cocoa cut flowers fish
Partners: US 38% Peru 6% Chile 5% Colombia 5% Italy 3% (2000)

Imports: $4.8 billion (2001 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment chemicals raw materials fuels; consumer goods
Partners: US 25% Colombia 13% Japan 8% Venezuela 8% Brazil 4% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $14 billion (2001) (2001)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: on 13 March 2000, the National Congress approved a new exchange system whereby the US dollar was adopted as the main legal tender in Ecuador for all purposes; on 20 March 2000, the Central Bank of Ecuador started to exchange sucres for US dollars at a fixed rate of 25,000 sucres per US dollar; since 30 April 2000, all transactions are denominated in US dollars

Ecuador - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 10.395 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 25%
By source hydro: 75%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 9.667 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ecuador - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 384,000 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: generally elementary but being expanded
Domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ec

Internet users: 328,000 (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ecuador - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 3.4% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ecuador - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 205 (2001)
With paved runways total: 61
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 18
With paved runways under 914 m: 18 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 18
With unpaved runways total: 144
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 31
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 113 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 61
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 18
Under 914 m: 18 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 18

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 144
914 to 1523 m: 31
Under 914 m: 113 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1358 km

Total: 965 km
Narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2000 est.)


Waterways: 1500 km

Merchant marine
Total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 239,876 GRT/393,680 DWT
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 1, Greece 1 (2002 est.)
Ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 23, specialized tanker 1

Ports and terminals

Ecuador - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; dollarization may raise the volume of money-laundering activity especially along the border with Colombia; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents


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