Estonia 2002Estonia

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Estonia - Introduction 2002
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Background: After centuries of Danish Swedish German and Russian rule Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994 Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.

Estonia - Geography 2002
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Location: Eastern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N 26 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 45,226 km²
Note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Water: 2,015 km²
Land: 43,211 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries
Total: 633 km
Border countries: (2) Latvia 339 km; , Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: maritime wet moderate winters cool summers

Terrain: marshy lowlands; flat in the north hilly in the south

Extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: oil shale peat phosphorite clay limestone sand dolomite arable land: sea mud
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 26.5%
Permanent crops: 0.35%
Other: 73.15% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: sometimes flooding occurs in the spring

Note: the mainland terrain is flat boggy and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1500 islands

Estonia - People 2002
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Population: 1,415,681 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: -0.52% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: NA% (2000)

Noun: Estonian
Adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.3% Russian 28.1% Ukrainian 2.5% Belarusian 1.5% Finn 1% other 1.6% (1998)

Languages: Estonian (official) Russian Ukrainian Finnish other

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran Russian Orthodox Estonian Orthodox Baptist Methodist Seventh-Day Adventist Roman Catholic Pentecostal Word of Life Jewish

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 118,603; female 114,102)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 466,882; female 502,343)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male 70,085; female 143,666) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.52% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 8.96 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 13.44 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.73 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily the emissions of 2000 were 4.6 times smaller than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies fell 20 times in 2000 compared to 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1400 natural and manmade lakes the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male/female
Total population: 0.86 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 12.32 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.02 years
Female: 76.31 years (2002 est.)
Male: 64.03 years

Total fertility rate: 1.24 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100% (1998 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Estonia - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
Conventional short form: Estonia
Local short form: Eesti
Former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Local long form: Eesti Vabariik

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions
Note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses

Dependent areas

Independence: regained on 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia 20 August 1991 was the date of reindependence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)
Head of government: Prime Minister Siim KALLAS (since 28 January 2002)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
Election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 188 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 24 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

Legislative branch
Election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

Judicial branch: National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)

Political parties and leaders: Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahsaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Siim KALLAS]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP; Moderates (Moodukad) [Ivari PADAR]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit League) [Tunne KELAM chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan Parts]; Russian Baltic Party [Sergei IVANOV]

International organization participation: BIS CBSS CCC CE EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNMIBH UNMIK UNTSO UPU WEU (associate partner) WHO WIPO WMO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON
In the us chancery: 1730 M Street NW, Suite 503, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us consulates general: New York
In the us fax: [1] (202) 588-0108
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. DeTHOMAS
From the us embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15,099 Tallinn
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [372] 668-8,100
From the us fax: [372] 668-8,134

Flag descriptionflag of Estonia: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top) black and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Estonia - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Estonia as a new member of the World Trade Organization is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West including the pegging of its currency to the euro. A major goal is accession to the EU possibly by 2004. The state of the economy is greatly influenced by developments in Finland Sweden and Germany three major trading partners. The trade deficit is a negative factor whereas the internal government surplus is a plus.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.4% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 6%
Industry: 29%
Services: 66% (2001)

Agriculture products: potatoes vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

Industries: engineering electronics wood and wood products textile; services; transit information technology telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 608,600 (2001 est.)
By occupation industry: 20%
By occupation agriculture: 11%
By occupation services: 69% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12.4% (2001)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA% (2000)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 3%
Highest 10: 30% (1998)

Distribution of family income gini index: 37 (1999)

Revenues: $1.89 billion
Expenditures: $1.89 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.7% (2002)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 33% wood and paper 15% textiles 14% food products 8% furniture 7% metals chemical products (2001)
Partners: Finland 33.8% Sweden 14% Latvia 6.9% Germany 6.9% UK 4.2 (2001)

Imports: $4.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 33.5% chemical products 11.6% textiles 10.3% foodstuffs 9.4% transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Partners: Finland 18% Germany 11% Sweden 9% China 9% Russia 8% (2001)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.3 billion (2001 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: krooni per US dollar - 17.518 (January 2002) 17.538 (2001) 16.969 (2000) 14.678 (1999) 14.075 (1998) 13.882 (1997); note - the kroon is tied to the euro at a fixed rate of 15.65 krooni per euro

Estonia - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 7.056 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 5.362 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 1.2 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Estonia - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 711,000 (yearend 2001)

Telephone system
General assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by September 2000
Domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and internet services is available throughout the country
International: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ee

Internet users: 429,700 (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Estonia - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $155 million (2002 est.)
Percent of gdp: 2% (2002 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Estonia - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 32 (2001)
With paved runways total: 8
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 24
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 7
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 6 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 8
2438 to 3047 m: 7
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 24
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 7
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 6 (2002)


Pipelines: natural gas 2000 km (2002)

Total: 968 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines
Broad gauge: 968 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (2001)


Waterways: 320 km (perennially navigable) (2002)

Merchant marine
Total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 245,958 GRT/193,042 DWT
Note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Liberia 1 (2002 est.)
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13, container 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 6

Ports and terminals

Estonia - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: Russia continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint December 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking

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