Lithuania 2002Lithuania

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Lithuania - Introduction 2002
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Background: Independent between the two World Wars Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990 Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence but this proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently has restructured its economy for eventual integration into Western European institutions.

Lithuania - Geography 2002
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Location: Eastern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N 24 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 65,200 km²
Water: NA km²
Land: NA km²
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 1,273 km
Border countries: (3) Belarus 502 km; , Latvia 453 km; , Poland 91 km; , Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: transitional between maritime and continental; wet moderate winters and summers

Terrain: lowland many scattered small lakes fertile soil

Extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 45.46%
Permanent crops: 0.93%
Other: 53.61% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 90 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

Lithuania - People 2002
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Population: 3,601,138 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: -0.25% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Lithuanian
Adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 80.6% Russian 8.7% Polish 7% Belarusian 1.6% other 2.1%

Languages: Lithuanian (official) Polish Russian

Religions: Roman Catholic (primarily) Lutheran Russian Orthodox Protestant Evangelical Christian Baptist Muslim Jewish

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.2% (male 333,966; female 319,992)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,184,969; female 1,265,711)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 167,789; female 328,711) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.25% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 10.22 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 12.87 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.15 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male/female
Total population: 0.88 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14.34 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.42 years
Female: 75.6 years (2002 est.)
Male: 63.54 years

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98%
Male: 99%
Female: 98% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Lithuania - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
Conventional short form: Lithuania
Local short form: Lietuva
Former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 10 counties (apskritys singular - apskritis); Alytaus Kauno Klaipedos Marijampoles Panevezio Siauliu Taurages Telsiu Utenos Vilniaus

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)

National holiday: Independence Day 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 is the date of independence from German Austrian Prussian and Russian occupation 11 March 1990 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Rolandas PAKSAS (since 26 February 2003)
Head of government: Premier Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 3 July 2001)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 22 December 2002 and 5 January 2003 (next to be held in late 2007); premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
Election results: Rolandas PAKSAS elected president; percent of vote - Rolandas PAKSAS 54.9%, Valdas ADAMKUS 45.1%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 8 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Coalition 31.1%, New Union-Social Liberals 19.6%, Liberal Union 17.2%, TS 8.6%, remaining parties all less than 5%; seats by party - Social Democratic Coalition 52, Liberal Union 34, New Union-Social Liberals 29, TS 9, Farmer's Party 4, Center Union 2, Poles' Electoral Action 2, Modern Christian Democratic Union 1, independents 3, others 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or LKDP [Kazys BOBELIS chairman]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS [Kestutis GLAVECKAS chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS chairman]; Lithuanian Green Party [Rimantas BRAZIULIS]; Lithuanian Liberal Union [Eugenijus GENTVILAS chairman]; Lithuanian Liberal Youth [Neringa MOROZAITE]; Lithuanian National Democratic Party [Vygintas GONTIS]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party or LDDP the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSPD and New Democracy; Moderate Conservative Union [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Modern Christian Democratic Union [Vytautas BOGUSIS chairman]; New Democracy and Farmer's Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE chairman]; New Union-Social Liberals [Arturas PAULAUSKAS chairman]; Young Lithuania [Arnoldas PLATELIS]

International organization participation: ACCT (observer) BIS CBSS CCC CE EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMIK UPU WCL WEU (associate partner) WHO WIPO WMO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Vygaudas USACKAS
In the us consulates general: Chicago and New York
In the us fax: [1] (202) 328-0466
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-5,860
In the us chancery: 2,622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John F. TEFFT
From the us embassy: 2,600 Akmenu 6, Vilnius
From the us mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 9,723
From the us telephone: [370] (2) 665-500
From the us fax: [370] (2) 665-510

Flag descriptionflag of Lithuania: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) green and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Lithuania - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Lithuania the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia has been slowly rebounding from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. High unemployment still 12% in 2002 and weak consumption have held back recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and has moved ahead with plans to join the EU. Privatization of the large state-owned utilities particularly in the energy sector is underway. Overall more than 80% of enterprises have been privatized. The US government and business aid have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.5% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 8%
Industry: 31%
Services: 61% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: grain potatoes sugar beets flax vegetables; beef milk eggs; fish

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools electric motors television sets refrigerators and freezers petroleum refining shipbuilding (small ships) furniture making textiles food processing fertilizers agricultural machinery optical equipment electronic components computers amber

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 1.5 million (2001 est.)
By occupation industry: 30%
By occupation agriculture: 20%
By occupation services: 50% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12.5% (2001 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 3%
Highest 10: 26% (1996) (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index: 34 (1999)

Revenues: $1.59 billion
Expenditures: $1.77 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 0.8% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: mineral products 23% textiles and clothing 16% machinery and equipment 11% chemicals 6% wood and wood products 5% foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Partners: UK 13.8% Latvia 12.6% Germany 12.6% Russia 11% Poland 6.3% (2001)

Imports: $6.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: mineral products 21% machinery and equipment 17% transport equipment 11% chemicals 9% textiles and clothing 9% metals 5% (2001)
Partners: Russia 25.3% Germany 17.2% Poland 4.9% Italy 4.2% France 3.8% (2001)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.8 billion (2002 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: litai per US dollar - 3.4946 (15 October 2002) 3.4794 (1 July 2002) 4.000 (fixed rate between 1 May 1994 and 1 February 2002); note - litai is the plural of litas; effective 1 February 2002 the litas was pegged to the euro at a rate of 3.4528

Lithuania - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 10.966 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 20%
By source hydro: 3%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 77%

Electricity consumption: 6.898 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 6.3 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 3 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Lithuania - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 500,000 (2001)

Telephone system
General assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
Domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
International: landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .lt

Internet users: 341,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Lithuania - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $230.8 million (FY01)
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (FY01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Lithuania - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 72 (2001)
With paved runways total: 9
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways under 914 m: 3 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 63
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 55 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 9
Over 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
Under 914 m: 3 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 63
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 55 (2002)


Pipelines: crude oil 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Total: 1,998 km
Broad gauge: 1,807 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 169 km 0.750-m gauge (2001)
Standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge


Waterways: 600 km (perennially navigable)

Merchant marine
Total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 279,743 GRT/304,156 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 25, combination bulk 8, petroleum tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 3
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 13 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Lithuania - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: the Russian Duma has not ratified 1997 boundary treaty; the Latvian Parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia Latin America and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy; susceptible to money laundering

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