Macedonia 2002Macedonia

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Macedonia - Introduction 2002
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Background: International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (F.Y.R.O.M.) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations despite continued disagreement over F.Y.R.O.M.'s use of 'Macedonia.' F.Y.R.O.M.'s large Albanian minority an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in F.Y.R.O.M. in 2001 and the status of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.

Macedonia - Geography 2002
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Location: Southeastern Europe north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N 22 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 25,333 km²
Water: 477 km²
Land: 24,856 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries
Total: 766 km
Border countries: (4) Albania 151 km; , Bulgaria 148 km; , Greece 246 km; , Serbia and Montenegro 221 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: warm dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Extremes lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
Extremes highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium lead zinc manganese tungsten nickel low-grade iron ore asbestos sulfur timber arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 23.59%
Permanent crops: 1.85%
Other: 74.56% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 550 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

Macedonia - People 2002
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Note: a Framework Agreement ratified by Macedonia on 16 November 2001 calls for a new census in 2002 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 0.41% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 24% (2001 est.)

Noun: Macedonian
Adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 66.6% Albanian 22.7% Turkish 4% Roma 2.2% Serb 2.1% other 2.4% (1994)

Languages: Macedonian 70% Albanian 21% Turkish 3% Serbo-Croatian 3% other 3%

Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 67% Muslim 30% other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 22.4% (male 239,638; female 221,446)
15-64 years: 67.2% (male 694,368; female 686,450)
65 years and over: 10.4% (male 94,214; female 118,684) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.41% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 13.35 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 7.74 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.49 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.08 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.08 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 12.54 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.26 years
Female: 76.68 years (2002 est.)
Male: 72.01 years

Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 100 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: NA
Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Macedonia - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Conventional short form: none
Local long form: Republika Makedonija
Abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.
Local short form: Makedonija

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions
Note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute 'greater Skopje'

Dependent areas

Independence: 8 September 1991 referendum by registered voters endorsing independence (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Uprising Day 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden

Note: the Macedonian Parliament approved November 2001 a series of new constitutional amendments, strengthening minority rights

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 1 November 2002)
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held NA October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
Election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%; Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected prime minister by Parliament with 72% of the vote
Cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, PDP, and DPA

Legislative branch
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition 60, VMRO-DPMNE 33, Democratic Integrative Union 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
Elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - Parliament appoints the judges

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI president]; Democratic Integrative Union [leader NA]; Democratic Party of Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris STOJMANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto GUSTERVO]; Liberal Party [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or MPDK [Kastriot HAXHISEXHA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Imeri IMERI president]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the Social Democrats) [leader NA]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
In the us chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us consulates general: New York
In the us fax: [1] (202) 337-3,093
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 337-3,063
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence Edward BUTLER
From the us embassy: bul. Ilinden bb, 1000 Skopje
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,120 (pouch)
From the us telephone: [389] (02) 116-180
From the us fax: [389] (02) 117-103

Flag description: a rising yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges of the red field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Macedonia - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: At independence in November 1991 Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure UN sanctions on Yugoslavia one of its largest markets and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However the leadership's commitment to economic reform free trade and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.6% because of decreased trade intermittent border closures increased deficit spending on security needs and investor uncertainty. Growth recovered moderately in 2002 but unemployment at one-third of the workforce remained a critical problem.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.8% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 11%
Industry: 31%
Services: 58% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: rice tobacco wheat corn millet cotton sesame mulberry leaves citrus vegetables; beef pork poultry mutton

Industries: coal metallic chromium lead zinc ferronickel textiles wood products tobacco food processing buses

Industrial production growth rate: -5% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 1.1 million (2000 est.)
By occupation agriculture: NA%
By occupation industry: NA%
By occupation services: NA%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 35% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 24% (2001 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $850 million
Expenditures: $950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 4% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: food beverages tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures iron and steel
Partners: Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 23.1% Germany 20.6% Greece 8.8% Italy 8.6% US 7.7% (2001)

Imports: $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment chemicals fuels; food products
Partners: Germany 12.6% Greece 10.9% Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 9.3% Russia 8.3% Slovenia 7.0% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.3 billion (2001 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Macedonian denars per US dollar - 64.757 (January 2001) 65.904 (2000) 56.902 (1999) 54.462 (1998) 50.004 (1997)

Macedonia - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.395 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 82%
By source hydro: 18%
By source other: 0% (1999)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 5.992 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 30 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 75 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Macedonia - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 12,362 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: NA
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .mk

Internet users: 100,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Macedonia - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Percent of gdp: 6% (FY01/02 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Macedonia - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 17 (2001)
With paved runways total: 10
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 8 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 7
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 4 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 10
2438 to 3047 m: 2
Under 914 m: 8 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 7
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 4 (2002)


Pipelines: 10 km

Total: 699 km
Standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified)
Note: a 56-km extension of the Kumanovo-Beljakovce line to the Bulgarian border at Gyueshevo is under construction (2001)


Note: lake transport only, on the Greek and Albanian borders

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Macedonia - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: dispute with Greece over country's name persists; 2001 FYROM-Yugoslavia boundary delimitation agreement which adjusts former republic boundaries was signed and ratified and awaits demarcation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo dispute legitimacy of the agreement which cedes small tracts of Kosovo lands to FYROM

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; while money laundering is a problem on a local level due to organized crime activities the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

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