Moldova 2002Moldova

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Moldova - Introduction 2002
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population mostly Ukrainians and Russians who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.

Moldova - Geography 2002
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Location: Eastern Europe northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N 29 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 33,843 km²
Water: 472 km²
Land: 33,371 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries
Total: 1,389 km
Border countries: (2) Romania 450 km; , Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe gradual slope south to Black Sea

Extremes lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
Extremes highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources: lignite phosphorites gypsum arable land: limestone
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 54.08%
Permanent crops: 12.1%
Other: 33.82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,070 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: landslides (57 cases in 1998)

Note: landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand gravel gypsum and limestone

Moldova - People 2002
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Population: 4,434,547 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 0.09% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)

Noun: Moldovan
Adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups
Note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region

Languages: Moldovan (official virtually the same as the Romanian language) Russian (official) Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98% Jewish 1.5% Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21.7% (male 490,414; female 472,912)
15-64 years: 68.2% (male 1,451,962; female 1,572,561)
65 years and over: 10.1% (male 165,860; female 280,838) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.09% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 13.82 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 12.64 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.28 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals including banned pesticides such as DDT has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male/female
Total population: 0.91 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 42.16 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.74 years
Female: 69.31 years (2002 est.)
Male: 60.39 years

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 4,500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 96%
Male: 99%
Female: 94% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Moldova - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form: Moldova
Local short form: none
Former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia
Local long form: Republica Moldova

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: 9 counties (judetele singular - judetul) 1 municipality* (municipiul) 1 autonomous territorial unit** (unitate teritoriala autonoma) and 1 territorial unit*** (unitate teritoriala); Balti Cahul Chisinau Chisinau* Edinet Gagauzia** Lapusna Orhei Soroca Stinga Nistrului*** Tighina Ungheni

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 27 August (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
Head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile IOVV (since NA 2002), Deputy Prime Minister Stefan ODAGIU (since NA 2002)
Cabinet: selected by prime minister, subject to approval of Parliament
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2005); note - presidential elections were scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct, popular elections; Parliament's failure to chose a new president in December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections in February 2001; prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; note - within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001
Election results: Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CHRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
Election results: percent of vote by party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance 19, PPCD 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)

Political parties and leaders: Braghis Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN first chairman]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Social Democratic Union (composed of Braghis Alliance and the Democratic Party of Moldova) [leader NA]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mihai MANOLI
In the us fax: [1] (202) 667-1204
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
In the us chancery: 2,101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela Hyde SMITH
From the us embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,080
From the us telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72
From the us fax: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side) yellow and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head star rose and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Moldova - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result the economy depends heavily on agriculture featuring fruits vegetables wine and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil coal and natural gas largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort Moldova introduced a convertible currency freed all prices stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises backed steady land privatization removed export controls and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth of 2.1% in 2000 and 6.1% in 2001. Growth remained strong in 2002 in part because of the reforms and because of starting from a small base. Further reforms are in doubt because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices poor agricultural weather and the scepticism of foreign investors.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 28%
Industry: 23%
Services: 49% (2000)

Agriculture products: vegetables fruits wine grain sugar beets sunflower seed tobacco; beef milk

Industries: food processing agricultural machinery foundry equipment refrigerators and freezers washing machines hosiery sugar vegetable oil shoes textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1998) (1998)
By occupation agriculture: 40%
By occupation industry: 14%
By occupation services: 46% (1998) (1998)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8% (roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad) (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2%
Highest 10: 31% (1997)

Distribution of family income gini index: 41 (1997)

Revenues: $536 million
Expenditures: $594 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 5.5% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $590 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs textiles and machinery (2001)
Partners: Russia 43% Ukraine 10.1% Italy 8.1% Germany 7.2% Romania 6.7% (2001)

Imports: $980 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: mineral products and fuel 32% machinery and equipment chemicals textiles (2000)
Partners: Ukraine 18% Russia 15.1% Romania 13.1% Germany 10.5% Italy 6.4% (2001)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.3 billion (2002)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei per US dollar - 12.8579 (October 2001) 12.4342 (2000) 10.5158 (1999) 5.3707 (1998) 4.6236 (1997); note - lei is the plural form of leu

Moldova - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.317 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 90%
By source hydro: 10%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 3.655 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 630 million kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 1.2 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Moldova - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2,200 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau, some effort to modernize is under way
Domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced
International: service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .md

Internet users: 15,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Moldova - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6 million (FY01)
Percent of gdp: 0.4% (FY01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Moldova - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 30 (2001)
With paved runways total: 7
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 23
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 14 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 7
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 23
2438 to 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 14 (2002)


Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Total: 1,328 km
Broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (2001)


Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Moldova - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: Moldovan difficulties with break-away Transnistria region inhibit establishment of a joint customs regime with Ukraine to curtail smuggling arms transfers and other illegal activities

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia Western Europe and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity


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