Niger 2002Niger

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Niger - Introduction 2002
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Background: Not until 1993 35 years after independence from France did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule by December 1999.

Niger - Geography 2002
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Location: Western Africa southeast of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N 8 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 1.267 million km²
Water: 300 km²
Land: 1,266,700 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 5,697 km
Border countries: (7) Algeria 956 km; , Benin 266 km; , Burkina Faso 628 km; , Chad 1,175 km; , Libya 354 km; , Mali 821 km; , Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; mostly hot dry dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north

Extremes lowest point: Niger River 200 m
Extremes highest point: Mont Bagzane 2,022 m

Natural resources: uranium coal iron ore tin phosphates gold petroleum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3.94%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 96.06% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Note: landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world: northern four-fifths is desert southern one-fifth is savanna suitable for livestock and limited agriculture

Niger - People 2002
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Population: 10,639,744 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 2.7% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.)

Noun: Nigerien
Adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56% Djerma 22% Fula 8.5% Tuareg 8% Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3% Arab Toubou and Gourmantche 1.2% about 1200 French expatriates

Languages: French (official) Hausa Djerma

Religions: Muslim 80% remainder indigenous beliefs and Christian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,594,932; female 2,503,867)
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,594,307; female 2,706,164)
65 years and over: 2.3% (male 125,898; female 114,576) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.7% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 49.95 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 22.25 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.71 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant hippopotamus giraffe and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male/female
65 years and over: 1.1 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 122.23 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 41.91 years
Female: 41.77 years (2002 est.)
Male: 42.04 years

Total fertility rate: 7 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 4% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: 17,700 (2002est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 15.3%
Male: 21.2%
Female: 9.4% (2002)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Niger - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Niger
Conventional short form: Niger
Local short form: Niger
Local long form: Republique du Niger

Government type: republic

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements singular - departement) and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez Diffa Dosso Maradi Niamey* Tahoua Tillaberi Zinder

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996 and again by referendum on 18 July 1999

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president
Cabinet: 23-member Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Mamadou TANDJA elected president; percent of vote - Mamadou TANDJA 59.9%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 40.1%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNSD-Nassara 38, CDS-Rahama 17, PNDS-Tarayya 16, RDP-Jama'a 8, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 4

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Mamadou TANDJA chairman]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU chairman]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA
In the us fax: [1] (202)483-3,169
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 483-4,224 through 4,227
In the us chancery: 2,204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gail Dennise Thomas MATHIEU
From the us embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
From the us mailing address: B. P. 11,201, Niamey
From the us telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64
From the us fax: [227] 73 31 67, 72-31-46

Flag descriptionflag of Niger: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top) white and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Niger - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Niger is a poor landlocked Sub-Saharan nation whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture animal husbandry reexport trade and increasingly less on uranium because of declining world demand. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock cowpeas onions and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'etat - for operating expenses and public investment. In 2000-01 the World Bank approved a structural adjustment loan of $105 million to help support fiscal reforms. However reforms could prove difficult given the government's bleak financial situation. The IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.1% (2001 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 41%
Industry: 17%
Services: 42% (2000)

Agriculture products: cowpeas cotton peanuts millet sorghum cassava (tapioca) rice; cattle sheep goats camels donkeys horses poultry

Industries: uranium mining cement brick textiles food processing chemicals slaughterhouses

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries
By occupation agriculture: 90%
By occupation industry and commerce: 6%
By occupation government: 4%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1%
Highest 10: 35% (1995) (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index: 51 (1995)

Revenues: $320 million, including $134 million from foreign sources
Expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $178 million (2002 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 4.2% (2001 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $246 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Commodities: uranium ore 65% livestock products cowpeas onions (1998 est.)
Partners: France 43.4% Nigeria 35.0% Spain 4.5% US 3.9% (2000)

Imports: $331 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Commodities: consumer goods primary materials machinery vehicles and parts petroleum cereals
Partners: France 16.8% Cote d'Ivoire 13.4% US 9.6% Nigeria 7.6% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.6 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002) 733.04 (2001) 711.98 (2000) 615.70 (1999) 589.95 (1998) 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999 the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Niger - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 220 million kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 404.6 million kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 200 million kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Niger - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 6,700 (2002)

Telephone system
General assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger
Domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ne

Internet users: 12,000 (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Niger - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $20.9 million (FY01)
Percent of gdp: 1.3% (FY01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Niger - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 26 (2001)
With paved runways total: 9
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 6
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 18
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 9
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 6
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 18
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 14
Under 914 m: 2 (2002)



Railways: 0 km (2002)


Note: the Niger River is navigable from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Niger - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: Niger and Benin have refered to the ICJ the dispute over l'Ete and 14 smaller islands in the Niger River which has never been delimited; the Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint remains undemarcated; Lake Chad Basin Commission urges signatories Cameroon Chad Niger and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region the site of continuing armed clashes; Libya claims about 19,400 km² in northern Niger in a currently dormant dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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