Serbia and Montenegro 2002Serbia%20and%20Montenegro

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Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro 

Thrifty Traveler

Serbia and Montenegro - Introduction 2002
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Background: The Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 was resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought themselves as well as the invaders. The group headed by Marshal TITO took full control upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist his new government successfully steered its own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In the early 1990s post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia Croatia and The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia all declared their independence in 1991; Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new 'Federal Republic of Yugoslavia' (FRY) in 1992 and under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite Serbs in neighboring republics into a 'Greater Serbia.' All of these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. In 1999 massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response including the NATO bombing of Serbia and the stationing of NATO and Russian peacekeepers in Kosovo. Federal elections in the fall of 2000 brought about the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. The arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in the Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001 the country's suspension was lifted and it was once more accepted into UN organizations under the name of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999 under the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244. In 2002 the Serbian and Montenegran components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. These talks became a reality in February 2003 when lawmakers restructured the country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. An agreement was also reached to hold a referendum in each republic in three years on full independence.

Serbia and Montenegro - Geography 2002
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Location: Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N 21 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 102,350 km²
Water: 214 km²
Land: 102,136 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries
Total: 2,246 km
Border countries: (7) Albania 287 km; , Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km; , Bulgaria 318 km; , Croatia (north) 241 km; , Croatia (south) 25 km; , Hungary 151 km; , The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km; , Romania 476 km

Coastline: 199 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north continental climate (cold winters and hot humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south Adriatic climate along the coast hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north rich fertile plains; to the east limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources: oil gas coal antimony copper lead zinc nickel gold pyrite chrome hydropower arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 36.34%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

Serbia and Montenegro - People 2002
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Note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: -0.12% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: 30%

Noun: Serb; Montenegrin
Adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serb 62.6% Albanian 16.5% Montenegrin 5% Hungarian 3.3% other 12.6% (1991)

Languages: Serbian 95% Albanian 5%

Religions: Orthodox 65% Muslim 19% Roman Catholic 4% Protestant 1% other 11%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19.6% (male 1,077,581; female 1,005,379)
15-64 years: 65.3% (male 3,415,929; female 3,546,410)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male 690,014; female 921,616) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.12% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 12.8 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 10.59 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.38 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

International agreements signed but not ratified: Biodiversity

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.08 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.07 male/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male/female
Total population: 0.95 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 17.36 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.72 years
Female: 76.89 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: NA%
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 93%
Male: 97.2%
Female: 88.9% (1991)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Serbia and Montenegro - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro
Conventional short form: none
Local short form: none
Local long form: Srbija-Crna Gora

Government type: republic

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo* Montenegro Serbia Vojvodina*

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)

National holiday: Republic Day 29 November

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 16 years of age if employed; 18 years of age universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003)
Head of government: Prime Minister Dragisa PESIC (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Miroljub LABUS (since 25 January 2001)
Cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet
Elections: president elected by the Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 7 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by the Parliament; percent of vote - Svetozar MAROVIC NA%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held NA 2005)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DOS 37, DLECG 19, DSS 17, ZP 14, SPS 12, SRS 8, SDP 5, SSJ 5, other 9

Judicial branch
Note: after the promulgation of the new Constitution, the Federal Court will have constitutional and administrative functions; it will have an equal number of judges from each republic

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA president]; Democratic List for European Montenegro or DLECG [leader NA]; Democratic Opposition of Serbia or DOS (a coalition of many small parties including DSS) [leader NA]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Party of Serb Unity or SSJ [Borislav PELEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party and party of Slobodan MILOSEVIC) [Zoran ANDJELKOVIC general secretary]; Social Dmocratic Party or SDP [Rasim LJAJIC]; Together for Changes or ZP [leader NA]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ivan ZIVKOVIC
In the us chancery: 2,134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 462-6,566
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
From the us embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11,000 Belgrade
From the us telephone: [381] (11) 361-9,344
From the us fax: [381] (11) 646-031
From the us branch office: Pristina

Flag descriptionflag of Serbia%20and%20Montenegro: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top) white and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Serbia and Montenegro - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy an extended period of economic sanctions and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the war in Kosovo has left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. Since the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000 the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000 Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001; it will write off 66% of the debt and provide a basis for Belgrade to seek similar debt relief on its $2.8 billion London Club commercial debt. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain it's own central bank uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency collects customs tariffs and manages its own budget. Kosovo while technically still part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 is moving toward local autonomy under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is dependent on the international community for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are official currencies and UNMIK collects taxes and manages the budget. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships slow progress in privatization and stagnation in the European economy are holding back the economy; nonetheless growth may be 4.5% in 2003.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 26%
Industry: 36%
Services: 38% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: cereals fruits vegetables tobacco olives; cattle sheep goats

Industries: machine building (aircraft trucks and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel aluminum copper lead zinc chromium antimony bismuth cadmium); mining (coal bauxite nonferrous ore iron ore limestone); consumer goods (textiles footwear foodstuffs appliances); electronics petroleum products chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 3 million (2001 est.)
By occupation agriculture: NA%
By occupation industry: NA%
By occupation services: NA%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 28% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 30%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $3.9 billion
Expenditures: $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $N/A (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 18% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: manufactured goods food and live animals raw materials
Partners: Italy 16.4% Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.1% Germany 12.1% The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 9.2% (2001)

Imports: $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment fuels and lubricants manufactured goods chemicals food and live animals raw materials
Partners: Russia 14.2% Germany 12.2% Italy 10.3% Greece 4.5% (2001)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $9.2 billion (2001 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - official rate: 65 (January 2002) 10.0 (December 1998) 5.85 (December 1997) 5.02 (September 1996); black market rate: 14.5 (December 1998) 8.9 (December 1997)

Serbia and Montenegro - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 32.984 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 59%
By source hydro: 41%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 31.546 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 43 million kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 914 million kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Serbia and Montenegro - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 87,000 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: NA
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users: 400,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Serbia and Montenegro - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $654 million (2002)
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Serbia and Montenegro - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 46 (2001)
With paved runways total: 19 19
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 4 4 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 6 6
With unpaved runways total: 26 27
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 12
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 2 13 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 19 19
Over 3047 m: 2 2
2438 to 3047 m: 5 5
914 to 1523 m: 2 2
Under 914 m: 4 4 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 6 6

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 26 27
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 12
Under 914 m: 2 13 (2002)

Heliports: 4 (2002)

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km

Total: 4,059 km
Standard gauge: 4,059 km 1.435-m gauge (1,377 km electrified)
Note: during the 1999 Kosovo conflict, the Serbian rail system suffered significant damage due to bridge destruction; many rail bridges have been rebuilt; Montenegrin rail lines remain intact (2001)


Note: the Danube River, central Europe's connection with the Black Sea, runs through Serbia; since early 2000, a pontoon bridge, replacing a destroyed conventional bridge, has obstructed river traffic at Novi Sad; the obstruction is bypassed by a canal system, the inadequate lock size of which limits the size of vessels which may pass; the pontoon bridge can be opened for large ships but has slowed river traffic (2001)

Merchant marine
Total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,437 GRT/400 DWT
Ships by type: short-sea passenger 1 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Serbia and Montenegro - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina have delimited about half of their boundary but several segments particularly along the meandering Drina River remain in dispute; The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M.)-Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) signed and ratified a boundary agreement which adjusts the former republic boundaries with demarcation to commence in 2002; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo dispute authority of the agreement which cedes small tracts of Kosovo to F.Y.R.O.M.; Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro continue to discuss disputed Prevlaka Peninsula and control over the Gulf of Kotor despite imminent UN intention to withdraw UNMOP observer mission

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

Undercover Tourist

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