Slovakia 2002Slovakia

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Slovakia
Slovakia 

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Slovakia - Introduction 2002
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Background: In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Historic political and geographic factors have caused Slovakia to experience more difficulty in developing a modern market economy than some of its Central European neighbors.


Slovakia - Geography 2002
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Location: Central Europe south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N 19 30 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 48,845 km²
Water: 45 km²
Land: 48,800 km²
Comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries
Total: 1,524 km
Border countries: (5) Austria 91 km; , Czech Republic 215 km; , Hungary 677 km; , Poland 444 km; , Ukraine 97 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold cloudy humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
Extremes highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 30.74%
Permanent crops: 2.64%
Other: 66.62% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 1740 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys


Slovakia - People 2002
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Population: 5,422,366 (July 2002 est.)
Growth rate: 0.14% (2002 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Slovak
Adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7% Hungarian 10.6% Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community which is about 500,000) Czech Moravian Silesian 1.1% Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6% German 0.1% Polish 0.1% other 0.2% (1996)

Languages: Slovak (official) Hungarian

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3% atheist 9.7% Protestant 8.4% Orthodox 4.1% other 17.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 508,256; female 484,739)
15-64 years: 70.1% (male 1,888,705; female 1,910,842)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 237,770; female 392,054) (2002 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.14% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 10.09 births/1000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 9.22 deaths/1000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.53 migrant(s)/1000 population (2002 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male/female
Total population: 0.95 male/female (2002 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.76 deaths/1000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.2 years
Female: 78.41 years (2002 est.)
Male: 70.19 years

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 400 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: NA
Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Slovakia - Government 2002
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Country name
Conventional long form: Slovak Republic
Conventional short form: Slovakia
Local short form: Slovensko
Local long form: Slovenska Republika

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje singular - kraj); Banskobystricky Bratislavsky Kosicky Nitriansky Presovsky Trenciansky Trnavsky Zilinsky

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday: Constitution Day 1 September (1992)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992 fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999 (next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
Note: government coalition - SDK, SDL, SMK, SOP, KDH
Election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote - Rudolf SCHUSTER 57%

Legislative branch
Election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS-LS 19.5%, SDKU 15.1%, SMER 13.5%, SMK 11.2%, KDH 8.3%, ANO 8%, KSS 6.3%; seats by party - governing coalition 78 (SDKU 28, SMK 20, KDH 15, ANO 15), opposition 72 (HZDS 36, SMER 25, KSS 11)
Elections: last held 20-21 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Democratic Party or DS [Ludovit KANIK]; Direction (Smer) [Robert FICO]; Liberal Democratic Union or LDU [Jan BUDAJ]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia-People's Party or HZDS-LS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; note - SSDS and SZS joined the SOP parliamentary caucus; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Pavel KONCOS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Real Slovak National Party or PSNS [Jan SLOTA]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [leader NA]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; note - this is DZURINDA's new party for the 2002 elections; he remains chairman of a rump and splintering SDK; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (loose parliamentary club grouping representing members of the smaller SSDS SZS and those committed to run under SDKU in 2002) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]; Yes (ANO) [Paval RUSKO]

International organization participation: Australia Group BIS BSEC (observer) CCC CE CEI CERN EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU NAM (guest) NSG OECD OPCW OSCE PCA PFP UN UNAMSIL UNCTAD UNDOF UNESCO UNFICYP UNIDO UNMEE UNTAET UNTSO UPU WCL WEU (associate partner) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Martin BUTORA
In the us chancery: 3,523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us fax: [1] (202) 237-6,438
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald WEISER
From the us embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81,102 Bratislava
From the us mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
From the us telephone: [421] (2) 5,443-3,338, 5,443-0861
From the us fax: [421] (2) 5,443-0096

Flag descriptionflag of Slovakia: three equal horizontal bands of white (top) blue and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Slovakia - Economy 2002
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Economy overview: Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government has made excellent progress in 2001-02 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands and foreign investment has picked up. Slovakia's economy exceeded expectations in 2001-02 despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment at an unacceptable 17.2% in 2002 remains the economy's Achilles heel. The government faces other strong challenges in 2003 especially the cutting of budget and current account deficits and the prevention of a revival of inflation.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5%
Industry: 34%
Services: 61% (2000)

Agriculture products: grains potatoes sugar beets hops fruit; pigs cattle poultry; forest products

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity gas coke oil nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 3 million (1999)
By occupation industry: 29%
By occupation agriculture: 9%
By occupation construction: 8%
By occupation transport and communication: 8%
By occupation services: 46% (1994) (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 17.2% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 5%
Highest 10: 18% (1992) (1992)

Distribution of family income gini index: 26 (1996)

Budget
Revenues: $5.2 billion
Expenditures: $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.3% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $12.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment 39.4% intermediate manufactured goods 27.5% miscellaneous manufactured goods 13% chemicals 8% (1999)
Partners: EU 59.9% (Germany 27.0% Italy 8.8% Austria 8.1%) Czech Republic 16.6% (2001)

Imports: $15.4 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment 37.7% intermediate manufactured goods 18% fuels 13% chemicals 11% miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)
Partners: EU 49.8% (Germany 24.7% Italy 6.4%) Czech Republic 15.1% Russia 14.8% (2001)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $9.6 billion (2002 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: koruny per US dollar - 47.792 (September 2001) 46.035 (2000) 41.363 (1999) 35.233 (1998) 33.616 (1997)


Slovakia - Energy 2002
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 27.53 billion kWh (2000)
By source fossil fuel: 35%
By source hydro: 17%
By source other: 0% (2000)
By source nuclear: 48%

Electricity consumption: 25.203 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity exports: 4.9 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity imports: 4.5 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Slovakia - Communication 2002
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 736,662 (April 1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality
Domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added
International: three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .sk

Internet users: 700,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Slovakia - Military 2002
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $406 million (2002)
Percent of gdp: 1.89% (2002)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Slovakia - Transportation 2002
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 34 (2001)
With paved runways total: 17
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 7 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With unpaved runways total: 17
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 9
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 7 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 17
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 7 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 3

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 17
2438 to 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 9
Under 914 m: 7 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Railways
Total: 3,660 km
Broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (2001)
Standard gauge: 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1,505 km electrified; 1,011 km double-tracked)

Roadways

Waterways: 172 km (all on the Danube)

Merchant marine
Total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,191 GRT/19,489 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 3 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals


Slovakia - Transnational issues 2002
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Disputes international: Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998 and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam abandoned by Hungary in 1989

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market




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