Brazil 2003Brazil

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Brazil - Introduction 2003
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Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool Brazil is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.

Brazil - Geography 2003
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Location: Eastern South America bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S 55 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 8,511,965 km²
Land: 8,456,510 km²
Note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Water: 55,455 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries
Total: 14,691 km
Border countries: (10) Argentina 1,224 km; , Bolivia 3,400 km; , Colombia 1,643 km; , French Guiana 673 km; , Guyana 1,119 km; , Paraguay 1,290 km; , Peru 1,560 km; , Suriname 597 km; , Uruguay 985 km; , Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate: mostly tropical but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains hills mountains and narrow coastal belt

Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite gold iron ore manganese nickel phosphates platinum tin uranium petroleum hydropower timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6.3%
Permanent crops: 1.42%
Other: 92.28% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 26,560 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

Brazil - People 2003
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Note: Brazil took a count in August 2000, which reported a population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 1.15% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

Noun: Brazilian
Adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese German Italian Spanish Polish) 55% mixed white and black 38% black 6% other (includes Japanese Arab Amerindian) 1%

Languages: Portuguese (official) Spanish English French

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 27.1% (male 25,151,855; female 24,196,506)
15-64 years: 67.2% (male 60,667,014; female 61,683,580)
65 years and over: 5.7% (male 4,232,784; female 6,100,865) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 27 years
Male: 26.2 years
Female: 27.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 17.67 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 6.13 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 31.74 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 27.68 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 35.61 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.13 years
Male: 67.16 years
Female: 75.3 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.7% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: 610,000 (2001 est.)
Deaths: 8,400 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 86.4%
Male: 86.1%
Female: 86.6% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Brazil - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
Conventional short form: Brazil
Local short form: Brasil
Local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

Government type: federative republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre Alagoas Amapa Amazonas Bahia Ceara Distrito Federal* Espirito Santo Goias Maranhao Mato Grosso Mato Grosso do Sul Minas Gerais Para Paraiba Parana Pernambuco Piaui Rio de Janeiro Rio Grande do Norte Rio Grande do Sul Rondonia Roraima Santa Catarina Sao Paulo Sergipe Tocantins

Dependent areas

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) was elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA (PSDB) 38.7%
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); runoff election held 27 October 2002
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Legislative branch
Election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party PMBD 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL 3, PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PPB 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PPB 49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5, other 11
Elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held NA October 2006 for one-third of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose Carlos MARTINEZ]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Jose ANIBAL]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Renato RABELLO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA]; Green Party or PV [leader NA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Deputy Valdemar COSTA Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Dr. Eneas CARNEIRO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Senator Roberto FREIRE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [leader NA]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose GENOINO]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA; note - Ambassador-Designate Roberto ABDENUR expected to arrive March 2004
In the us fax: [1] (202) 238-2,827
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
In the us chancery: 3,006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 238-2,700
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donna J. HRINAK
From the us embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70,403-900, Brasilia
From the us mailing address: Unit 3,500, APO AA 34,030
From the us telephone: [55] (61) 312-7,000
From the us fax: [55] (61) 225-9,136
From the us consulates general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
From the us consulates: Recife

Flag descriptionflag of Brazil: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Brazil - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural mining manufacturing and service sectors Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. The maintenance of large current account deficits via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more risk averse to emerging markets as a consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural reform Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January 1999 the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. The consequent devaluation helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999 and the country posted moderate GDP growth in 2000. Economic growth slowed considerably in 2001-03 - to less than 2% - because of a slowdown in major markets and the hiking of interest rates by the Central Bank to combat inflationary pressures. New president DA SILVA who took office 1 January 2003 has given priority to reforming the complex tax code trimming the overblown civil service pension system and continuing the fight against inflation.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.5% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 8%
Industry: 36%
Services: 56% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee soybeans wheat rice corn sugarcane cocoa citrus; beef

Industries: textiles shoes chemicals cement lumber iron ore tin steel aircraft motor vehicles and parts other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 79 million (1999 est.)
By occupation services: 53%
By occupation agriculture: 23%
By occupation industry: 24%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2001 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 0.7%
Highest 10: 48% (1998)

Distribution of family income gini index: 60.7 (1998)

Revenues: $100.6 billion
Expenditures: $91.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 8.3% (2002)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $59.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: transport equipment iron ore soybeans footwear coffee autos
Partners: US 23.8% Argentina 8.5% Germany 5% China 4.3% Netherlands 4.2% (2002)

Imports: $46.2 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Commodities: machinery electrical and transport equipment chemical products oil
Partners: US 23.3% Argentina 12.6% Germany 8.7% France 5.2% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $222.4 billion (2002)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar

Brazil - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 321.2 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 8.3%
By source hydro: 82.7%
By source other: 4.6% (2001)
By source nuclear: 4.4%

Electricity consumption: 335.9 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 37.19 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 5.95 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 9.59 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 3.64 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Proved reserves: 221.7 billion m³ (37,257)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Brazil - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 4.4 million (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: good working system
Domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
International: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .br

Internet users: 13.98 million (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Brazil - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $13.408 billion (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Brazil - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3,590 (2002)
With paved runways total: 665
With paved runways over 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 23
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 155
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 435
With paved runways under 914 m: 45 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 2,925
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 70
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1,384
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1,471 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 665
Over 3047 m: 7
2438 to 3047 m: 23
15-24 to 2437 m: 155
914 to 1523 m: 435
Under 914 m: 45 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 2,925
15-24 to 2437 m: 70
914 to 1523 m: 1,384
Under 914 m: 1,471 (2002)


Pipelines: condensate/gas 243 km; gas 10,984 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km; oil 5,113 km; refined products 4,800 km (2003)

Total: 31,543 km (1,981 km electrified)
Broad gauge: 4,961 km 1.600-m gauge (692 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 25,992 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
Dual gauge: 396 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km electrified) (2002)
Standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge (630 km electrified)


Waterways: 50,000 km

Merchant marine
Total: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,257,186 GRT/5,101,578 DWT
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 2, Germany 6, Greece 1, Monaco 1
Ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 23, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 7, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 53, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 1

Ports and terminals

Brazil - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering smuggling arms and drug trafficking and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation in the Amazon region used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian Bolivian and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area


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