Brunei 2003Brunei

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Brunei - Introduction 2003
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Background: The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession colonial expansion of European powers and piracy. In 1888 Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the developing world.

Brunei - Geography 2003
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Location: Southeastern Asia bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N 114 40 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 5,770 km²
Water: 500 km²
Land: 5,270 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries
Total: 381 km
Border countries: (1) Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM or to median line
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot humid rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 0.57%
Permanent crops: 0.76%
Other: 98.67% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: typhoons earthquakes and severe flooding are rare

Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

Brunei - People 2003
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Population: 358,098 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 2% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Bruneian
Adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 67% Chinese 15% indigenous 6% other 12%

Languages: Malay (official) English Chinese

Religions: Muslim (official) 67% Buddhist 13% Christian 10% indigenous beliefs and other 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 29.6% (male 54,118; female 51,902)
15-64 years: 67.6% (male 128,421; female 113,480)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 4,804; female 5,373) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 26.4 years
Male: 27 years
Female: 25.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 2% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 19.68 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 3.39 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.75 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International agreements party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1.13 male/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male/female
Total population: 1.1 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 13.5 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 9.71 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 17.09 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.3 years
Male: 71.9 years
Female: 76.82 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 100 (2001 est.)
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 91.8%
Male: 94.8%
Female: 88.5% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Brunei - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
Conventional short form: Brunei

Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah singular - daerah); Belait Brunei and Muara Temburong Tutong

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962 others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch
Chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch
Elections: last held in March 1962
Note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin president]; note - the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985 but became largely inactive after 1988; it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965 deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

International organization participation: APEC ARF ASEAN C ESCAP G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDB IFRCS IMF IMO Interpol IOC ISO (correspondent) ITU NAM OIC OPCW UN UNCTAD UPU WCO WHO WIPO WMO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Anak Dato Haji PUTEH
In the us fax: [1] (202) 885-0560
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
In the us chancery: 3,520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gene B. CHRISTY
From the us embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
From the us mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96,507
From the us telephone: [673] (2) 229,670
From the us fax: [673] (2) 225,293

Flag descriptionflag of Brunei: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Brunei - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: This small wealthy economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship government regulation welfare measures and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force reducing unemployment strengthening the banking and tourist sectors and in general further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5%
Industry: 45%
Services: 50% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: rice vegetables fruits chickens water buffalo

Industries: petroleum petroleum refining liquefied natural gas construction

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2002 est.)

Labor force
Note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force (1999 est.)
By occupation: government 48% production of oil natural gas services and construction 42% agriculture forestry and fishing 10% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (2001 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $2.5 billion
Expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: -2% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3 billion f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Commodities: crude oil natural gas refined products
Partners: Japan 40.3% South Korea 12.3% Thailand 12.1% Australia 9.2% US 8.1% China 6.4% Singapore 5.7% (2002)

Imports: $1.4 billion c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment manufactured goods food chemicals
Partners: Singapore 30.6% Japan 21.5% Malaysia 17.4% UK 6.1% Hong Kong 4% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $0

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.79 (2002) 1.79 (2001) 1.72 (2000) 1.69 (1999) 1.67 (1998)

Brunei - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.497 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2001)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 2.322 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 10.35 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 1.35 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 9 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Proved reserves: 315 billion m³ (37,257)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Brunei - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 43,524 (1996)

Telephone system
General assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
Domestic: every service available
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .bn

Internet users: 35,000 (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Brunei - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $329.7 million (FY02)
Percent of gdp: 5% (FY02)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Brunei - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2 (2002)
With paved runways total: 1
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 1
Over 3047 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 1
914 to 1523 m: 1 (2002)

Heliports: 3 (2002)

Pipelines: gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2003)

Total: 13 km (private line)
Narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge (2001 est.)


Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Merchant marine
Total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
Ships by type: liquefied gas 8
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: UK 7 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Brunei - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: Involved in dispute over the Spratly Islands with China Malaysia Philippines Taiwan and Vietnam; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; claimants in November 2002 signed the 'Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea' a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding 'code of conduct'

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty


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