Canada 2003Canada

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Canada
Canada 



Canada - Introduction 2003
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec with its French-speaking residents and unique culture to the remainder of the country.


Canada - Geography 2003
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Location: Northern North America bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east North Pacific Ocean on the west and the Arctic Ocean on the north north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N 95 00 W

Map referenceNorth America

Area
Total: 9,984,670 km²
Land: 9,093,507 km²
Water: 891,163 km²
Comparative: somewhat larger than the US

Land boundaries
Total: 8,893 km
Border countries: (1) US 8,893 km; (includes 2,477 km

Coastline: 202,080 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources: iron ore nickel zinc copper gold lead molybdenum potash diamonds silver fish timber wildlife coal petroleum natural gas hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4.94%
Permanent crops: 0.02%
Other: 95.04% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,200 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic Pacific and North American interior and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

Geography
Note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US border


Canada - People 2003
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Population: 32,207,113 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 0.94% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Canadian
Adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28% French origin 23% other European 15% Amerindian 2% other mostly Asian African Arab 6% mixed background 26%

Languages: English 59.3% (official) French 23.2% (official) other 17.5%

Religions
Note: based on the 1991 census

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.5% (male 3,052,005; female 2,903,007)
15-64 years: 68.6% (male 11,099,907; female 10,984,903)
65 years and over: 12.9% (male 1,774,262; female 2,393,029) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 37.8 years
Male: 36.9 years
Female: 38.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 0.94% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 10.99 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 7.61 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.01 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting coal-burning utilities and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural industrial mining and forestry activities
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 4.88 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 4.39 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 5.36 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 79.83 years
Male: 76.44 years
Female: 83.38 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: 55,000 (2001 est.)
Deaths: less than 500 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97% (1986 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Canada - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Canada

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador Northwest Territories* Nova Scotia Nunavut* Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Territory*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law except in Quebec where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999)
Elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)
Cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch
Elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be held by 2005)
Election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 41%, Canadian Alliance 26%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 12%; seats by party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12; note - percent of vote by party as of January 2002 - Liberal Party 51%, Canadian Alliance 10%, Bloc Quebecois 10%, New Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 18%; seats by party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal Court of Queens Bench Superior Court Supreme Court and Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian Alliance [Stephen HARPER]; Liberal Party [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]; Progressive Conservative Party [Peter MACKAY]

International organization participation: ACCT AfDB APEC ARF (dialogue partner) AsDB ASEAN (dialogue partner) Australia Group BIS C CDB CE (observer) EAPC EBRD ECE ECLAC ESA (cooperating state) FAO G-7 G-8 G-10 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURCA MIPONUH MONUC NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS OECD OPCW OSCE PCA UN UNAMSIL UNCTAD UNDOF UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNMEE UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOP UNMOVIC UNTSO UNU UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael F. KERGIN
In the us chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,001
In the us fax: [1] (202) 682-7,726
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
In the us consulates: Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CELLUCCI
From the us embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 5,000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13,669-0430
From the us telephone: [1] (613) 238-5,335, 4,470
From the us fax: [1] (613) 688-3,097
From the us consulates general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag descriptionflag of Canada: two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Canada - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: As an affluent high-tech industrial society Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system pattern of production and high living standards. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing mining and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close cross-border relationship the economic sluggishness in the United States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy. Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000 but declined in 2001 with moderate recovery in 2002. Unemployment is up with contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors. Nevertheless given its great natural resources skilled labor force and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows loom the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas which has been raising the specter of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professionals lured by higher pay lower taxes and the immense high-tech infrastructure. A key strength in the economy is the substantial trade surplus.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.3% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 2.3%
Industry: 26.5%
Services: 71.2% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat barley oilseed tobacco fruits vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Industries: transportation equipment chemicals processed and unprocessed minerals food products; wood and paper products; fish products petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 16.4 million (2001 est.)
By occupation: services 74% manufacturing 15% construction 5% agriculture 3% other 3% (2000)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.6% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.8%
Highest 10: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index: 31.5 (1994)

Budget
Revenues: $178.6 billion
Expenditures: $161.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 2.2% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $260.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: motor vehicles and parts industrial machinery aircraft telecommunications equipment; chemicals plastics fertilizers; wood pulp timber crude petroleum natural gas electricity aluminum
Partners: US 87.7% Japan 2% UK 1.1% (2002)

Imports: $229 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment motor vehicles and parts crude oil chemicals electricity durable consumer goods
Partners: US 62.6% China 4.6% Japan 4.4% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.9 billion $NA (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.57 (2002) 1.55 (2001) 1.49 (2000) 1.49 (1999) 1.48 (1998)


Canada - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 566.3 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 28%
By source hydro: 57.9%
By source other: 1.3% (2001)
By source nuclear: 12.9%

Electricity consumption: 504.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 38.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 16.11 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 186.8 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 82.25 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 109 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 4.46 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Proved reserves: 1.691 trillion m³ (37,257)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Canada - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 8,751,300 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
Domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
International: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ca

Internet users: 16.84 million (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Canada - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $7.861 billion (FY01/02)
Percent of gdp: 1.1% (FY01/02)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Canada - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1389 (2002)
With paved runways total: 507
With paved runways over 3047 m: 18
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 245
With paved runways under 914 m: 80 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 149
With unpaved runways total: 882
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 73
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 363
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 446 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 507
Over 3047 m: 18
2438 to 3047 m: 15
914 to 1523 m: 245
Under 914 m: 80 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 149

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 882
15-24 to 2437 m: 73
914 to 1523 m: 363
Under 914 m: 446 (2002)

Heliports: 12 (2002)

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Railways
Total: 49,422 km
Standard gauge: 49,422 km 1.435-m gauge (129 km electrified) (2002)

Roadways

Waterways: 3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)

Merchant marine
Total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,840,272 GRT/2,740,864 DWT
Ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 64, cargo 11, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 3, Monaco 16, United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals


Canada - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance Beaufort Sea Strait of Juan de Fuca and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute with Denmark over Hans Island sovereignty in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector


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