Cyprus 2003Cyprus

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Cyprus
Cyprus 

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Cyprus - Introduction 2003
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Background: Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish Cypriot minority. In 1974 a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the government was met by military intervention from Turkey which soon controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983 the Turkish-held area declared itself the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' but it is recognized only by Turkey. UN-led direct talks between the two sides to reach a comprehensive settlement to the division of the island began in January 2002.


Cyprus - Geography 2003
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Location: Middle East island in the Mediterranean Sea south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N 33 00 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Area
Total: 9,250 km² (of which 3,355 km² are in the Turkish Cypriot area)
Water: 10 km²
Land: 9,240 km²
Comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; Mediterranean with hot dry summers and cool winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources: copper pyrites asbestos gypsum timber salt marble clay earth pigment
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10.61%
Permanent crops: 4.65%
Other: 84.74% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 400 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Geography
Note: the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)


Cyprus - People 2003
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Population: 771,657 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 0.56% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Cypriot
Adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 85.2% Turkish 11.6% other 3.2% (2000)

Languages: Greek Turkish English

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78% Muslim 18% Maronite Armenian Apostolic and other 4%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21.9% (male 86,446; female 82,769)
15-64 years: 67% (male 261,404; female 255,409)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 37,345; female 48,284) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 34.2 years
Male: 33.1 years
Female: 35.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 0.56% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 12.77 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 7.63 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.43 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments seasonal disparity in rainfall sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 7.54 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 5.54 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 9.43 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.27 years
Male: 74.94 years
Female: 79.71 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.88 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 1000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97.6%
Male: 98.9%
Female: 96.3% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Cyprus - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
Conventional short form: Cyprus
Note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' (TRNC)

Government type
Note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot 'President' Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' (TRNC), recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a federation (Greek Cypriot position) or confederation (Turkish Cypriot position)

Capital: Nicosia

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta Kyrenia Larnaca Limassol Nicosia Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia all but a small part of Famagusta and small parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975

National holiday: Independence Day 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriot area celebrates 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the 'Turkish Federated State of Cyprus' which was renamed the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law with civil law modifications

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
Head of government: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 February 2003 (next to be held NA February 2008)
Note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been 'president' of the Turkish Cypriot area since 13 February 1975 ('president' elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections last held 15 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2005); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president after the other contender withdrew; Dervis EROGLU has been 'prime minister' of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area
Election results: Tassos PAPADOPOULOS elected president; percent of vote - Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 51.5%, Glafkos KLIRIDIS 38.8%, Alekos MARKIDIS 6.6%

Legislative branch
Election results: Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 34.71%, DISY 34%, DIKO 14.84%, KISOS 6.51%, others 9.94%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 20, DISY 19, DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 4; Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKP 15.4%, CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by party - UBP 24, DP 13, TKP 7, CTP 6
Elections: Greek Cypriot area: last held 27 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2006); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2003)

Judicial branch
Note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; New Horizons [Nikolaus KOUTSOU]; Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; Social Democrats Movement or KISOS (formerly United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK) [Yiannakis OMIROU]; United Democrats Movement or EDE [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Izzet IZCAN]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]

International organization participation: Australia Group C CE EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICFTU IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS (associate) IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU NAM NSG OAS (observer) OPCW OSCE PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Euripides L. EVRIVIADES
In the us chancery: 2,211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us fax: [1] (202) 483-6,710
In the us note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Osman ERTUG; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6,198
In the us consulates: New York
In the us consulates general: New York
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 462-5,772
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KLOSSON
From the us embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, 2,407 Nicosia
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 24,536, 1385 Nikosia
From the us telephone: [357] (22) 776,400
From the us fax: [357] (22) 780,944

Flag descriptionflag of Cyprus
Note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Cyprus - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly susceptible to external shocks. Erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals caused by political instability in the region and fluctuations in economic conditions in Western Europe. Economic policy is focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish sector water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants are now online. The Turkish Cypriot economy has roughly one-third of the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing and investment. It remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government service which together employ about half of the work force. To compensate for the economy's weakness Turkey provides grants and loans to support economic development. Ankara provided $200 million in 2002 and pledged $450 million for the 2003-05 period. Future events throughout the island will be highly influenced by the outcome of negotiations on the UN-sponsored agreement to unite the Greek and Turkish areas and by the arrangements under which the island joins the EU.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: 1.7% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 2.6% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Greek cypriot area total: agriculture 4.6%; industry 19.9%; services 19.9%
Turkish cypriot area total: agriculture 75.5%; industry 20.7%; services 71% (2001)

Agriculture products: potatoes citrus vegetables barley grapes olives vegetables

Industries: food beverages textiles chemicals metal products tourism wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: -1.4% (2002); Turkish Cypriot area: -0.3% (2002)

Labor force: Greek Cypriot area: 291,000; Turkish Cypriot area: 86,300 (2000)
By occupation Greek Cypriot area  services: 73%
By occupation industry: 22.8%
By occupation agriculture: 20.8% (1998)
By occupation (2000); Turkish Cypriot area  services: 56.4%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.3%; Turkish Cypriot area: 5.6% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: Greek Cypriot area - $4.4 billion, Turkish Cypriot area - $231.3 million (2002 est.)
Expenditures: $3.7 billion, Greek Cypriot area - $539 million, including capital expenditures of $539 million, Turkish Cypriot area - $432.8 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: Greek Cypriot area: 2.8% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 24.5% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: Greek Cypriot area: $1.03 billion f.o.b. Turkish Cypriot area: $46 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: Greek Cypriot area: citrus potatoes pharmaceuticals cement clothing and cigarettes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus potatoes textiles
Partners: UK 28.2% Greece 7% UAE 5.3% France 5.2% (2002)

Imports: Greek Cypriot area: $3.9 billion f.o.b.; Turkish Cypriot area: $301 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods petroleum and lubricants intermediate goods machinery transport equipment; Turkish Cypriot area: food minerals chemicals machinery
Partners: Russia 17.9% Greece 7.4% Germany 6.7% France 6.6% UK 6.6% Italy 6.6% South Korea 5.7% Japan 5.3% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: Greek Cypriot area: $8 billion; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA (2002)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.61 (2002) 0.64 (2001) 0.62 (2000) 0.54 (1999) 0.52 (1998) Turkish lira per US dollar NA (2002) 1,225,590 (2001) 625,218 (2000) 418,783 (1999) 260,724 (1998)


Cyprus - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.401 billion kWh; Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source other: 0% (2001)
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: Greek Cypriot area: 3.163 billion kWh; Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Cyprus - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot areas
Domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
International: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .cy

Internet users: 150,000 (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Cyprus - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $384 million (FY02)
Percent of gdp: 3.8% (FY02)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Cyprus - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 16 (2002)
With paved runways total: 13
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways total: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 13
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)
914 to 1523 m: 3

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 3
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Heliports: 10 (2002)

Pipelines

Railways: 0 km

Roadways

Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 1,180 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 23,106,229 GRT/37,032,163 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 421, cargo 325, chemical tanker 25, combination bulk 24, combination ore/oil 2, container 151, liquefied gas 2, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 124, refrigerated cargo 45, roll on/roll off 37, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 3
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Austria 12, Belgium 2, Bulgaria 2, Canada 3, Chile 2, China 16, Croatia 2, Cuba 11, Finland 1, Germany 229, Greece 607, Guam 1, Hong Kong 6, India 6, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Israel 5, Italy 1, Japan 26, Latvia 14, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 2, Mexico 1, Monaco 10, Netherlands 30, Norway 23, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Poland 19, Portugal 2, Russia 57, Singapore 2, Slovenia 2, South Korea 4, Spain 7, Sudan 2, Sweden 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 13, United Kingdom 6, United States 4, Vietnam 1 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals


Cyprus - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot area separated by a UN buffer zone; UN deadline on sides accepting a federation plan for reunification have expired diminishing chances of Turkish-Cypriot participation in EU membership in 2004

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; anti-money-laundering laws strengthened but few convictions


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