Indonesia 2003Indonesia

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Indonesia - Introduction 2003
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Background: Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago; it achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector effecting a transition to a popularly-elected government after four decades of authoritarianism addressing charges of cronyism and corruption holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations and resolving growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Papua.

Indonesia - Geography 2003
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Location: Southeastern Asia archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S 120 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 1,919,440 km²
Water: 93,000 km²
Land: 1,826,440 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,830 km
Border countries: (3) East Timor 228 km; , Malaysia 1,782 km; , Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum tin natural gas nickel timber bauxite copper fertile soils coal gold silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 9.9%
Permanent crops: 7.2%
Other: 82.9% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 48,150 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasional floods severe droughts tsunamis earthquakes volcanoes forest fires

Note: archipelago of more than 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Indonesia - People 2003
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Population: 234,893,453 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 1.52% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: 27% (1999)

Noun: Indonesian
Adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45% Sundanese 14% Madurese 7.5% coastal Malays 7.5% other 26%

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official modified form of Malay) English Dutch local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Religions: Muslim 88% Protestant 5% Roman Catholic 3% Hindu 2% Buddhist 1% other 1% (1998)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 29.7% (male 35,437,274; female 34,232,824)
15-64 years: 65.4% (male 76,743,613; female 76,845,245)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 5,086,465; female 6,548,032) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 25.8 years
Male: 25.4 years
Female: 26.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 1.52% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 21.49 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 6.26 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 38.09 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 32.4 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 43.5 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.94 years
Male: 66.54 years
Female: 71.47 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: 120,000 (2001 est.)
Deaths: 4,600 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.5%
Male: 92.9%
Female: 84.1% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Indonesia - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form: Indonesia
Local long form: Republik Indonesia
Former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Local short form: Indonesia

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions
Note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence that was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as the provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor gained its formal independence on 20 May 2002

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949 Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945 abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch
Chief of state: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected separately by the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; selection of president last held 23 July 2001; selection of vice president last held 26 July 2001; next election to be held in July 2004; in accordance with constitutional changes, the election of the president and vice president will be by direct vote of the citizenry
Note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 195 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve broad outlines of national policy and also has yearly meetings to consider constitutional and legislative changes; constitutional amendments adopted in 2001 and 2002 provide for the MPR to be restructured in 2004 and to consist entirely of popularly-elected members who will be in the DPR and the new House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD); the MPR will no longer formulate national policy
Election results: MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor (91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes in favor (237 against)

Legislative branch
Election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30; note - subsequent to the election, there has been a change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is: PDI-P 153, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 13, other 32
Elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held April 2004)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); note - the Supreme Court is preparing to assume administrative responsibility for the lower court system currently run by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; a separate Constitutional Court was invested by the president on 16 August 2003

Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANDJUNG general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS chairman]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Hidayat NUR WAHID chairman]; United Development Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ chairman]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat
In the us chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
In the us fax: [1] (202) 775-5,365
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 775-5,200
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph L. BOYCE
From the us embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10,110
From the us mailing address: Unit 8,129, Box 1, FPO AP 96,520
From the us telephone: [62] (21) 3,435-9,000
From the us fax: [62] (21) 385-7,189
From the us consulates general: Surabaya

Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Indonesia - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: Indonesia a vast polyglot nation faces severe economic development problems stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions; the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes; corruption; weaknesses in the banking system; and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. In November 2001 Indonesia agreed with the IMF on a series of economic reforms in 2002 thus enabling further IMF disbursements. Negotiations with the IMF and bilateral donors continued in 2002. Keys to future growth remain internal reform the build-up of the confidence of international donors and investors and a strong comeback in the global economy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.7% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 17%
Industry: 41%
Services: 42% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: rice cassava (tapioca) peanuts rubber cocoa coffee palm oil copra; poultry beef pork eggs

Industries: petroleum and natural gas; textiles apparel and footwear; mining cement chemical fertilizers plywood; rubber; food; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 99 million (1999)
By occupation agriculture: 45%
By occupation industry: 16%
By occupation services: 39% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.6% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 27% (1999)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 4%
Highest 10: 26.7% (1999)

Distribution of family income gini index: 31.7 (1999)

Revenues: $26 billion
Expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March but starting with 2001 has been changed to calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 11.9% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $52.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: oil and gas electrical appliances plywood textiles rubber
Partners: Japan 21.1% US 13.2% Singapore 9.4% South Korea 7.2% China 5.1% Taiwan 4.2% (2002)

Imports: $32.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment; chemicals fuels foodstuffs
Partners: Japan 14.1% Singapore 13.1% US 8.5% China 7.8% South Korea 5.3% Taiwan 5.1% Australia 5.1% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $131 billion (2002 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 9,311 (2002) 10,261 (2001) 8,422 (2000) 7,855 (1999) 10,014 (1998)

Indonesia - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 95.78 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 86.9%
By source hydro: 10.5%
By source other: 2.5% (2001)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 89.08 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 69 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 36.2 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 32.8 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Proved reserves: 2.549 trillion m³ (37,257)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Indonesia - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 1.07 million (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
Domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .id

Internet users: 4.4 million (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Indonesia - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 1.3% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Indonesia - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 631 (2002)
With paved runways total: 153
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 12
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 48
With paved runways under 914 m: 43 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 46
With unpaved runways total: 478
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 25
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 450 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 153
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 48
Under 914 m: 43 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 46

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 478
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 25
Under 914 m: 450 (2002)

Heliports: 9 (2002)

Pipelines: condensate 672 km; condensate/gas 125 km; gas 8,183 km; oil 7,429 km; oil/gas/water 66 km; refined products 1329 km; water 72 km (2003)

Total: 6,458 km
Narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)


Note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Merchant marine
Total: 710 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,045,673 GRT/4,106,508 DWT
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Hong Kong 2, India 1, Japan 2, Malaysia 1, Monaco 3, Panama 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 1, Switzerland 1, UK 2, US 1 (2002 est.)
Ships by type: bulk 42, cargo 400, chemical tanker 15, container 56, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 13, petroleum tanker 127, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 16, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 6

Ports and terminals

Indonesia - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet regularly to survey and delimit land boundary; East Timor refugees delay return from camps in Indonesia; maritime delimitations with Australia and East Timor await further discussions; ICJ awarded Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002; Indonesian secessionists squatters and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin


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