Macedonia 2003Macedonia

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Macedonia - Introduction 2003
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Background: International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (F.Y.R.O.M.) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations despite continued disagreement over F.Y.R.O.M.'s use of 'Macedonia.' F.Y.R.O.M.'s large Albanian minority an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in F.Y.R.O.M. in 2001 and the status of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.

Macedonia - Geography 2003
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Location: Southeastern Europe north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N 22 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 25,333 km²
Water: 477 km²
Land: 24,856 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries
Total: 766 km
Border countries: (4) Albania 151 km; , Bulgaria 148 km; , Greece 246 km; , Serbia and Montenegro 221 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: warm dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Extremes lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
Extremes highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium lead zinc manganese tungsten nickel low-grade iron ore asbestos sulfur timber arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 23.59%
Permanent crops: 1.85%
Other: 74.56% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 550 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

Macedonia - People 2003
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Note: a census was taken 1-15 November 2002, but results are not yet available (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 0.4% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: 24% (2001 est.)

Noun: Macedonian
Adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64.2% Albanian 25.2% Turkish 3.8% Roma 2.7% Serb 1.8% other 2.3% (1994)

Languages: Macedonian 70% Albanian 21% Turkish 3% Serbo-Croatian 3% other 3%

Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 67% Muslim 30% other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21.9% (male 235,102; female 217,574)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 700,929; female 691,552)
65 years and over: 10.6% (male 96,039; female 121,926) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 32.5 years
Male: 31.4 years
Female: 33.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 0.4% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 13.2 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 7.78 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.46 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.08 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.08 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 12.14 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 11.12 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 13.08 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.49 years
Male: 72.23 years
Female: 76.94 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 100 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: NA
Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Macedonia - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Conventional short form: none
Local long form: Republika Makedonija
Abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.
Local short form: Makedonija

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions
Note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute 'greater Skopje'

Dependent areas

Independence: 8 September 1991 referendum by registered voters endorsing independence (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Uprising Day 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden

Note: in November of 2001, the Macedonian Parliament approved a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 1 November 2002)
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held 1 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
Election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%; Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected prime minister by Parliament with 72% of the vote
Cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties SDSM, LDP, and DUI (or BDI)

Legislative branch
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition (SDSM and LDP) 60, VMRO-DPMNE 33, Democratic Union for Integration 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
Elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - Parliament appoints the judges

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI president]; Democratic Union for Integration or DUI (also BDI) [Ali AHMETI]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH [Arben XHAFERI president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris ZMEJKOVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Kastriot HAXHIREXHA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD [Abdurrahman HALITI]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the SDSM and LDP) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
In the us chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us consulates general: New York
In the us fax: [1] (202) 337-3,093
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 337-3,063
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence Edward BUTLER
From the us embassy: Bul. Ilinden bb, 91,000 Skopje
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, 7,120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20,521-7,120 (pouch)
From the us telephone: [389] 116-180
From the us fax: [389] 117-103

Flag description: a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Macedonia - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: At independence in November 1991 Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure UN sanctions on Yugoslavia one of its largest markets and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However the leadership's commitment to economic reform free trade and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade intermittent border closures increased deficit spending on security needs and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.3% then rose to 2.8% in 2003. Unemployment at one-third of the workforce remains the most critical economic problem. But even this issue is overshadowed by the fragile political situation.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.7% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 11%
Industry: 31%
Services: 58% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: rice tobacco wheat corn millet cotton sesame mulberry leaves citrus vegetables; beef pork poultry mutton

Industries: coal metallic chromium lead zinc ferronickel textiles wood products tobacco food processing buses

Industrial production growth rate: -5% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 1.1 million (2000 est.)
By occupation agriculture: NA%
By occupation industry: NA%
By occupation services: NA%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 37% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 24% (2001 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.13 billion
Expenditures: $1.02 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.1% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: food beverages tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures iron and steel
Partners: Germany 19.2% Italy 9.2% US 6.7% Croatia 5.5% Greece 4.6% (2002)

Imports: $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment chemicals fuels; food products
Partners: Greece 19.4% Germany 14.4% Bulgaria 7.5% Slovenia 6.9% Italy 6.9% Turkey 5.9% Ukraine 5% Austria 4.1% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.3 billion (2001 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Macedonian denars per US dollar - 64.35 (2002) 68.04 (2001) 65.9 (2000) 56.9 (1999) 54.46 (1998)

Macedonia - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.465 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 83.7%
By source hydro: 16.3%
By source other: 0% (2001)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 6.112 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 100 million kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Macedonia - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 12,362 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: NA
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .mk

Internet users: 100,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Macedonia - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Percent of gdp: 6% (FY01/02 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Macedonia - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 18 (2002)
With paved runways total: 10
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 8 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 8
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 4 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 10
2438 to 3047 m: 2
Under 914 m: 8 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 8
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 4 (2002)


Pipelines: gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2003)

Total: 699 km
Standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2002)


Note: lake transport only, on the Greek and Albanian borders

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Macedonia - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: the Albanian government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in F.Y.R.O.M. while continuing to seek regional cooperation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo continue to protest 2000 F.Y.R.O.M.-Serbia and Montenegro boundary treaty which transfers small tracts of land to F.Y.R.O.M.; dispute with Greece over country's name persists

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; while money laundering is a problem on a local level due to organized crime activities the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center


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