New Zealand 2003New%20Zealand

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New Zealand
New Zealand 

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New Zealand - Introduction 2003
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Background: The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840 their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain the Treaty of Waitangi in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.


New Zealand - Geography 2003
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Location: Oceania islands in the South Pacific Ocean southeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S 174 00 E

Map referenceOceania

Area
Total: 268,680 km²
Note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Water: NA km²
Land: NA km²
Comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Territorial sea: 12 NM
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m

Natural resources: natural gas iron ore sand coal timber hydropower gold limestone
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5.8%
Permanent crops: 6.44%
Other: 87.76% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,850 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes are common though usually not severe; volcanic activity

Geography
Note: about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world


New Zealand - People 2003
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Population: 3,951,307 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 1.09% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: New Zealander
Adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups: New Zealand European 74.5% Maori 9.7% other European 4.6% Pacific Islander 3.8% Asian and others 7.4%

Languages: English (official) Maori (official)

Religions: Anglican 24% Presbyterian 18% Roman Catholic 15% Methodist 5% Baptist 2% other Protestant 3% unspecified or none 33% (1986)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21.9% (male 443,837; female 423,118)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 1,318,751; female 1,307,796)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 199,722; female 258,083) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 33.1 years
Male: 32.4 years
Female: 33.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 1.09% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 14.14 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.26 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.04 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male/female
Total population: 0.99 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 6.07 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 5.14 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 6.96 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.32 years
Male: 75.34 years
Female: 81.44 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: 1200 (2001 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99% (1980 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


New Zealand - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: New Zealand
Abbreviation: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 16 regions; Auckland Bay of Plenty Canterbury Gisborne Hawke's Bay Marlborough Nelson Northland Otago Southland Taranaki Tasman Waikato Manawatu-Wanganui Wellington West Coast

Dependent areas: (1) Cook Islands Niue Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand) 6 February (1840)

Constitution: consists of a series of legal documents including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments and The Constitution Act 1986 which is the principal formal charter

Legal system: based on English law with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4 April 2001)
Head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since NA July 2002)
Cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 27 July 2002 (next to be held NA 2005)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NZLP 52, NP 27, NZFP 13, ACT New Zealand 9, Green Party 9, UF 8, other 2

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: ACT New Zealand [Richard PREBBLE]; Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party Democratic Party New Zealand Liberal Party and Mana Motuhake) [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; National Party or NP [Don BRASH]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]

International organization participation: ABEDA ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986) APEC ARF (dialogue partner) AsDB ASEAN (dialogue partner) Australia Group C CP EBRD ESCAP FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICCt ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU NAM (guest) NSG OECD OPCW PCA Sparteca SPC SPF UN UNAMSIL UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNMIK UNMISET UNMOP UNTSO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador L. John WOOD
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles, New York
In the us fax: [1] (202) 667-5,227
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 328-4,800
In the us chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Charles J. SWINDELLS
From the us embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96,531-1034
From the us telephone: [64] (4) 462-6,000
From the us fax: [64] (4) 472-3,478
From the us consulates general: Auckland

Flag descriptionflag of New%20Zealand: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


New Zealand - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: Since 1984 the government has accomplished major economic restructuring transforming New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder) broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector and contained inflationary pressures. While per capita incomes have been rising however they remain below the level of the four largest EU economies and there is some government concern that New Zealand is not closing the gap. New Zealand is heavily dependent on trade - particularly in agricultural products - to drive growth and it has been affected by the global economic slowdown and the slump in commodity prices. Thus far the New Zealand economy has been relatively resilient although growth may slow to 2.5% in 2003.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.3% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 8%
Industry: 23%
Services: 69% (2001)

Agriculture products: wheat barley potatoes pulses fruits vegetables; wool beef dairy products; fish

Industries: food processing wood and paper products textiles machinery transportation equipment banking and insurance tourism mining

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)

Labor force: 1.92 million (2001 est.)
By occupation services: 65%
By occupation industry: 25%
By occupation agriculture: 10% (1995)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.3% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 0.3%
Highest 10: 29.8% (1991 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $29.2 billion
Expenditures: $31.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 2.7% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $15 billion (2002 est.)
Commodities: dairy products meat wood and wood products fish machinery
Partners: Australia 20.3% US 15.5% Japan 11.5% UK 4.8% China 4.6% South Korea 4.4% (2002)

Imports: $12.5 billion (2001 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment vehicles and aircraft petroleum electronics textiles plastics
Partners: Australia 22.1% US 13.6% Japan 12% China 8% Germany 5.2% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $33 billion (2002 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.16 (2002) 2.38 (2001) 2.2 (2000) 1.89 (1999) 1.87 (1998)


New Zealand - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 37.51 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 31.6%
By source hydro: 57.8%
By source other: 10.7% (2001)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 34.88 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 6.504 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 6.504 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Proved reserves: 58.94 billion m³ (37,257)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


New Zealand - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2.2 million (2000)

Telephone system
General assessment: excellent domestic and international systems
Domestic: NA
International: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .nz

Internet users: 2.06 million (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


New Zealand - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $605.7 million (FY02)
Percent of gdp: 1% (FY02)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


New Zealand - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 113 (2002)
With paved runways total: 46
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 28
With paved runways under 914 m: 5 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 10
With unpaved runways total: 67
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 26
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 39 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 46
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 28
Under 914 m: 5 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 10

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 67
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 26
Under 914 m: 39 (2002)

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Pipelines: gas 2,213 km; liquid petroleum gas 79 km; oil 160 km; refined products 304 km (2003)

Railways
Total: 3,898 km
Narrow gauge: 3,898 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2002)

Roadways

Waterways
Note: of little importance in satisfying total transportation requirements

Merchant marine
Total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 69,685 GRT/106,627 DWT
Note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1 (2002 est.)
Ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 2, container 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

Ports and terminals


New Zealand - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


The Fives Hotels


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