Pakistan 2003Pakistan

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Pakistan - Introduction 2003
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Background: The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved. A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998.

Pakistan - Geography 2003
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Location: Southern Asia bordering the Arabian Sea between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N 70 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Total: 803,940 km²
Land: 778,720 km²
Water: 25,220 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries
Total: 6,774 km
Border countries: (4) Afghanistan 2,430 km; , China 523 km; , India 2,912 km; , Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1046 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate: mostly hot dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Natural resources: land extensive natural gas reserves limited petroleum poor quality coal iron ore copper salt limestone
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 27.81%
Permanent crops: 0.79%
Other: 71.4% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 180,000 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Pakistan - People 2003
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Population: 150,694,740 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 2.01% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: 35% (2001 est.)

Noun: Pakistani
Adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups: Punjabi Sindhi Pashtun (Pathan) Baloch Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)

Languages: Punjabi 48% Sindhi 12% Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10% Pashtu 8% Urdu (official) 8% Balochi 3% Hindko 2% Brahui 1% English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries) Burushaski and other 8%

Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77% Shi'a 20%) Christian Hindu and other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 39.3% (male 30,463,958; female 28,726,776)
15-64 years: 56.5% (male 43,571,093; female 41,651,872)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,051,674; female 3,229,367) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 19.8 years
Male: 19.7 years
Female: 20 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 2.01% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 29.59 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 8.79 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.75 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution from raw sewage industrial wastes and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male/female
Total population: 1.05 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 76.53 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 76.09 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 76.95 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 62.2 years
Male: 61.3 years
Female: 63.14 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: 78,000 (2001 est.)
Deaths: 4,500 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 45.7%
Male: 59.8%
Female: 30.6% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Pakistan - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Conventional short form: Pakistan
Former: West Pakistan

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions
Note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Dependent areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day 23 March (1956)

Note: selected provisions of the Constitution pertaining to changes President MUSHARRAF made while the Constitution was suspended, remain contested by political opponents

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

Executive branch
Note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; exercising the powers of the head of the government, he appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as Pakistan's supreme governing body; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years
Chief of state: President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan JAMALI (since 23 November 2002)
Elections: the president is elected by Parliament for a five-year term; note - in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years (next to be held NA 2007); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly for a four-year term (next to be held NA 2006)
Election results: results are for the 10 October 2002 election for prime minister - Mir Zafarullah Khan JAMALI elected prime minister
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the Prime Minister

Legislative branch
Election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PML/Q 40, PPPP 11, MMA 21, MQM/A 6, PML/N 4, NA 3, PML/F 1, PkMAP 2, ANP 2, PPP/S 2, JWP 1, BNP-Awami 1, BNP-Mengal 1, BNM/H 1, independents 4; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA%; seats by party - PML/Q 126, PPPP 81, MMA 63, PML/N 19, MQM/A 17, NA 16, PML/F 5, PML/J 3, PPP/S 2, BNP 1, JWP 1, PAT 1, PML/Z 1, PTI 1, MQM/H 1, PkMAP 1, independents 3
Elections: Senate - last held 24 and 27 February 2003 (next to be held by February 2007); National Assembly - last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2006)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court

Political parties and leaders
Note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ashraf Jehangir QAZI
In the us chancery: 2,315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us fax: [1] (202) 387-0484
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles, New York, and Sunnyvale (California)
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 939-6,205
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL
From the us embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62,200, APO AE 9,812-2,200
From the us telephone: [92] (51) 2,080-0000
From the us fax: [92] (51) 2,276,427
From the us consulates: Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar

Flag descriptionflag of Pakistan: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent star and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Pakistan - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: Pakistan an impoverished and underdeveloped country suffers from internal political disputes low levels of foreign investment and a costly ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. Pakistan's economic prospects although still marred by poor human development indicators continued to improve in 2002 following unprecedented inflows of foreign assistance beginning in 2001. Foreign exchange reserves have grown to record levels supported largely by fast growth in recorded worker remittances. Trade levels rebounded after a sharp decline in late 2001. The government has made significant inroads in macroeconomic reform since 2000 but progress is beginning to slow. Although it is in the second year of its $1.3 billion IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility Islamabad continues to require waivers for politically difficult reforms. Long-term prospects remain uncertain as development spending remains low regional tensions remain high and political tensions weaken Pakistan's commitment to lender-recommended economic reforms. GDP growth will continue to hinge on crop performance; dependence on foreign oil leaves the import bill vulnerable to fluctuating oil prices; and efforts to open and modernize the economy remain uneven.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.4% (FY01/02 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 24%
Industry: 25%
Services: 51% (FY01/02 est.)

Agriculture products: cotton wheat rice sugarcane fruits vegetables; milk beef mutton eggs

Industries: textiles and apparel food processing beverages construction materials paper products fertilizer shrimp

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (FY01/02 est.)

Labor force
Note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2000)
By occupation agriculture: 44%
By occupation industry: 17%
By occupation services: 39% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.8% plus substantial underemployment (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 35% (2001 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 4.1%
Highest 10: 27.6% (1996-97)

Distribution of family income gini index: 41 (FY98/99)

Revenues: $12.6 billion
Expenditures: $14.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY02/03 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.9% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $9.8 billion f.o.b. (FY02/03 est.)
Commodities: textiles (garments cotton cloth and yarn) rice leather sports goods and carpets and rugs
Partners: US 24.5% UAE 8.5% UK 7.2% Germany 4.9% Hong Kong 4.8% (2002)

Imports: $11.1 billion f.o.b. (FY02/03 est.)
Commodities: petroleum petroleum products machinery chemicals transportation equipment edible oils pulses iron an steel tea
Partners: UAE 11.7% Saudi Arabia 11.7% Kuwait 6.7% US 6.4% China 6.2% Japan 6% Malaysia 4.5% Germany 4.4% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $32.3 billion (2002 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 59.72 (2002) 61.93 (2001) 53.65 (2000) 49.12 (1999) 44.94 (1998)

Pakistan - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 66.96 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 68.8%
By source hydro: 28.2%
By source other: 0% (2001)
By source nuclear: 3%

Electricity consumption: 62.27 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 23.4 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 23.4 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Proved reserves: 695.6 billion m³ (37,257)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Pakistan - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 158,000 (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population
Domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
International: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .pk

Internet users: 1.2 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Pakistan - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $2.964 billion (FY02)
Percent of gdp: 4.6% (FY02)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Pakistan - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 124 (2002)
With paved runways total: 87
With paved runways over 3047 m: 14
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 21
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17
With paved runways under 914 m: 3 (2002)
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 32
With unpaved runways total: 37
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 9
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 9
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 19 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 87
Over 3047 m: 14
2438 to 3047 m: 21
914 to 1523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 3 (2002)
15-24 to 2437 m: 32

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 37
15-24 to 2437 m: 9
914 to 1523 m: 9
Under 914 m: 19 (2002)

Heliports: 13 (2002)

Pipelines: gas 9,945 km; oil 1821 km (2003)

Total: 8,163 km
Broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 247,675 GRT/375,435 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 14, container 3, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Pakistan - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: thousands of Afghan refugees still reside in Pakistan; isolating terrain and close ties among Pashtuns in Pakistan make cross-border activities difficult to control; armed stand-off with India over the status and sovereignty of Kashmir continues - India objects to Pakistan ceding lands to China in 1965 boundary agreement that India believes are part of disputed Kashmir; disputes with India over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Rann of Kutch which prevents maritime boundary delimitation

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: opium poppy cultivation practically eliminated; key transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western markets; Afghan narcotics continue to transit Federally Administered Tribal Areas Balochistan Province and Karachi; financial crimes related to drug trafficking terrorism corruption and smuggling remain problems


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