Qatar 2003Qatar

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Qatar - Introduction 2003
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Background: Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the amir who had ruled the country since 1972. He was overthrown by his son the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001 Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Oil and natural gas revenues enable Qatar to have a per capita income not far below the leading industrial countries of Western Europe.

Qatar - Geography 2003
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Location: Middle East peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N 51 15 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Total: 11,437 km²
Water: 0 km²
Land: 11,437 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries
Total: 60 km
Border countries: (1) Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: arid; mild pleasant winters; very hot humid summers

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
Extremes highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1.27%
Permanent crops: 0.27%
Other: 98.46% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 130 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: haze dust storms sandstorms common

Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

Qatar - People 2003
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Population: 817,052 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 2.87% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Qatari
Adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups: Arab 40% Pakistani 18% Indian 18% Iranian 10% other 14%

Languages: Arabic (official) English commonly used as a second language

Religions: Muslim 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 24.7% (male 102,938; female 98,934)
15-64 years: 72.4% (male 415,302; female 176,183)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 17,199; female 6,496) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 31.2 years
Male: 36.4 years
Female: 21.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 2.87% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 15.68 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 4.43 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 17.48 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 2.36 male/female
65 years and over: 2.65 male/female
Total population: 1.9 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 20.03 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 16.28 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 23.59 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.14 years
Male: 70.65 years
Female: 75.76 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.02 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.09% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 82.5%
Male: 81.4%
Female: 85% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Qatar - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: State of Qatar
Conventional short form: Qatar
Local short form: Qatar
Note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar
Local long form: Dawlat Qatar

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 10 municipalities (baladiyat singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah Al Ghuwayriyah Al Jumayliyah Al Khawr Al Wakrah Ar Rayyan Jarayan al Batinah Madinat ash Shamal Umm Sa'id Umm Salal

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972; in July 1999 Amir HAMAD issued a decree forming a committee to draft a permanent constitution; in the 29 April 2003 referendum 96.6% of Qatari voters approved the new constitution

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected crown prince by the monarch 22 October 1996); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
Head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20 January 1998)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Note: in April 2003, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election for the CMC was held in March 1999

Legislative branch
Note: no legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every four years since; the new constitution provides for a 45-member Consultative Council, or Majlis al-Shura; the public would elect two-thirds of the Majlis al-Shura; the amir would appoint the remaining members

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Badr Umar al-DAFA
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600
In the us consulates general: Houston
In the us fax: [1] (202) 237-0061
In the us chancery: 4,200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,016
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen E. QUINN
From the us embassy: Al-Luqtas District, 22 February Road, Doha
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 2,399, Doha
From the us telephone: [974] 488 4,101
From the us fax: [974] 488 4,298

Flag descriptionflag of Qatar: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Qatar - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: Oil and gas account for more than 55% of GDP roughly 85% of export earnings and 70% of government revenues. Oil and gas have given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to that of the leading West European industrial countries. Proved oil reserves of 14.5 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for 23 years. Production and export of natural gas are becoming increasingly important to the economy. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 17.9 trillion cubic meters more than 5% of the world total and third largest in the world. Long-term goals feature the development of offshore natural gas reserves. Since 2000 Qatar has consistently posted trade surpluses largely because of high oil prices and increased natural gas exports and Qatar's economy is expected to receive an added boost as it begins to increase liquid natural gas exports.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.6% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 0.4%
Industry: 67.6%
Services: 32% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: fruits vegetables; poultry dairy products beef; fish

Industries: crude oil production and refining fertilizers petrochemicals steel reinforcing bars cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 280,122 (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.7% (2001)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $5 billion
Expenditures: $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (FY 02/03 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.9% (2002)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $10.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: petroleum products fertilizers steel
Partners: Japan 40.1% South Korea 16.6% Singapore 8.2% US 4.1% (2002)

Imports: $3.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment food chemicals
Partners: France 17.8% Japan 10.1% US 8.5% UK 8.3% Germany 8% Italy 6.7% UAE 5.1% Saudi Arabia 4.1% South Korea 4% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $15.4 billion (2002 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Qatari rials per US dollar - 3.64 (2002) 3.64 (2001) 3.64 (2000) 3.64 (1999) 3.64 (1998)

Qatar - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9.264 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2001)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 8.616 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 32.4 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 15.86 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 16.54 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Proved reserves: 17.93 trillion m³ (37,257)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Qatar - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 43,476 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: modern system centered in Doha
Domestic: NA
International: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .qa

Internet users: 75,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Qatar - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $723 million (FY00)
Percent of gdp: 10% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Qatar - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4 (2002)
With paved runways total: 2
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2 (2002)
With unpaved runways total: 2
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
Total: 2
Over 3047 m: 2 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 2
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)
914 to 1523 m: 1

Heliports: 1 (2002)

Pipelines: condensate 90 km; condensate/gas 209 km; gas 902 km; liquid petroleum gas 87 km; oil 722 km; oil/gas/water 41 km (2003)

Railways: 0 km


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 638,815 GRT/995,096 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 2, combination ore/oil 2, container 7, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 1
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1, UAE 3 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Qatar - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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