Singapore 2003Singapore

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Singapore - Introduction 2003
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Background: Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

Singapore - Geography 2003
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Location: Southeastern Asia islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N 103 48 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 692.7 km²
Water: 10 km²
Land: 682.7 km²
Comparative: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical; hot humid rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve

Extremes lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
Extremes highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

Natural resources: fish deepwater ports
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1.64%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 98.36% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

Singapore - People 2003
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Population: 4,608,595 (July 2003 est.)
Growth rate: 3.42% (2003 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Singaporean
Adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.7% Malay 14% Indian 7.9% other 1.4%

Languages: Chinese (official) Malay (official and national) Tamil (official) English (official)

Religions: Buddhist (Chinese) Muslim (Malays) Christian Hindu Sikh Taoist Confucianist

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 17.3% (male 411,656; female 385,575)
15-64 years: 75.5% (male 1,687,217; female 1,793,783)
65 years and over: 7.2% (male 144,277; female 186,087) (2003 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age
Total: 34.5 years
Male: 34.3 years
Female: 34.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 3.42% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 12.75 births/1000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 25.76 migrant(s)/1000 population (2003 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.08 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.07 male/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male/female
Total population: 0.95 male/female (2003 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 3.57 deaths/1000 live births
Female: 3.25 deaths/1000 live births (2003 est.)
Male: 3.87 deaths/1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 80.42 years
Male: 77.46 years
Female: 83.6 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.24 children born/woman (2003 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
People living with hivaids: 3,400 (2001 est.)
Deaths: 140 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 93.2%
Male: 96.7%
Female: 89.7% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Singapore - Government 2003
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
Conventional short form: Singapore

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)

National holiday: Independence Day 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959 amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers Brig. Gen. (Ret.) LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990) and TAN Keng Yam Tony (since 1 August 1995)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held by August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
Election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 3 November 2001 (next to be held 25 June 2007)
Election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 75.3% (in contested constituencies), other 24.7%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SDA 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: governing party: People's Action Party or PAP [GOH Chok Tong]; opposition parties: Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [leader NA]; National Solidarity Party or NSP [Steve CHIA]; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong] (includes SPP PKMS NSP SJP); Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Singapore Justice Party or SJP [leader NA]; Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS [Muhammad ALI Aman]; Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong]; Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Kiang]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee
In the us consulates: New York
In the us consulates general: San Francisco
In the us fax: [1] (202) 537-0876
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 537-3,100
In the us chancery: 3,501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin L. LAVIN
From the us embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258,508
From the us mailing address: PSC Box 470, FPO AP 96,507-0001
From the us telephone: [65] 6,476-9,100
From the us fax: [65] 6,476-9,340

Flag descriptionflag of Singapore: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band there is a vertical white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Singapore - Economy 2003
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Economy overview: Singapore a highly developed and successful free market economy enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment stable prices and one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world. The economy depends heavily on exports particularly in electronics and manufacturing. It was hard hit in 2001-2002 by the global recession and the slump in the technology sector. The government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle than the current export-led model but is unlikely to abandon efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.2% (2002 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: NEGL%
Industry: 33%
Services: 67% (2001 est.)

Agriculture products: rubber copra fruit orchids vegetables; poultry eggs fish ornamental fish

Industries: electronics chemicals financial services oil drilling equipment petroleum refining rubber processing and rubber products processed food and beverages ship repair entrepot trade biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: -9.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 2.19 million (2000)
By occupation: financial business and other services 35% manufacturing 21% construction 13% transportation and communication 9% other 22%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4.6% (2002 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $27.9 billion
Expenditures: $19.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion (FY 00/01 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: -0.4% (2002 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $127 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics) consumer goods chemicals mineral fuels
Partners: Malaysia 17.4% US 15.3% Hong Kong 9.2% Japan 7.1% China 5.5% Taiwan 4.9% Thailand 4.6% South Korea 4.2% (2002)

Imports: $113 billion (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment mineral fuels chemicals foodstuffs
Partners: Malaysia 18.2% US 14.3% Japan 12.5% China 7.6% Thailand 4.6% Taiwan 4.6% (2002)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $8.2 billion (2002 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.79 (2002) 1.79 (2001) 1.72 (2000) 1.69 (1999) 1.67 (1998)

Singapore - Energy 2003
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 30.48 billion kWh (2001)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source other: 0% (2001)
By source nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption: 28.35 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas
Production: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Consumption: 2.5 billion m³ (2001 est.)
Exports: 0 m³ (2001 est.)
Imports: 2.5 billion m³ (2001 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Singapore - Communication 2003
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2.74 million (2000)

Telephone system
General assessment: major consideration given to serving business interests; excellent international service
Domestic: excellent domestic facilities
International: submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .sg

Internet users: 2.31 million (2002)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Singapore - Military 2003
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $4.47 billion (FY01 est.)
Percent of gdp: 4.9% (FY01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Singapore - Transportation 2003
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 9 (2002)
With paved runways total: 9
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 9
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: gas 139 km (2003)

Total: 38.6 km
Narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge
Note: there is also an 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 859 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 20,836,021 GRT/32,765,063 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 125, cargo 85, chemical tanker 87, combination bulk 6, combination ore/oil 8, container 176, liquefied gas 38, livestock carrier 3, multi-functional large-load carrier 2, petroleum tanker 277, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 31
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 7, Belgium 6, China 12, Denmark 27, Germany 17, Greece 4, Hong Kong 44, Indonesia 8, Japan 52, Malaysia 4, Monaco 22, Netherlands 2, Norway 42, Philippines 6, Russia 3, Slovenia 1, South Korea 10, Sweden 13, Switzerland 7, Taiwan 46, Tanzania 2, Thailand 22, UAE 4, UK 14, US 1 (2002 est.)

Ports and terminals

Singapore - Transnational issues 2003
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Disputes international: disputes with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore Singapore's land reclamation works on Johor maritime boundaries and Singapore-occupied Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih persist - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: as a transportation and financial services hub Singapore is vulnerable despite strict laws and enforcement to be used as a transit point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering

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