Statistical information Australia 2023Australia

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Australia - Introduction 2023
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Background:
Aboriginal Australians arrived on the continent at least 60,000 years ago and developed complex hunter-gatherer societies and oral histories. Dutch navigators led by Abel TASMAN were the first Europeans to land in Australia in 1606, and they mapped the western and northern coasts. They named the continent New Holland but made no attempts to permanently settle it. In 1770, English captain James COOK sailed to the east coast of Australia, named it New South Wales, and claimed it for Great Britain. In 1788 and 1825, Great Britain established New South Wales and then Tasmania as penal colonies respectively. Great Britain and Ireland sent more than 150,000 convicts to Australia before ending the practice in 1868. As Europeans began settling areas away from the coasts, they came into more direct contact with Aboriginal Australians. Europeans also cleared land for agriculture, impacting Aboriginal Australians’ ways of life. These issues, along with disease and a policy in the 1900s that forcefully removed Aboriginal children from their parents, reduced the Aboriginal Australian population from more than 700,000 pre-European contact to a low of 74,000 in 1933.

Four additional colonies were established in Australia in the mid-1800s: Western Australia (1829), South Australia (1836), Victoria (1851), and Queensland (1859). Gold rushes beginning in the 1850s brought thousands of new immigrants to New South Wales and Victoria, helping to reorient Australia away from its penal colony roots. In the second half of the 1800s, the colonies were all gradually granted self-government, and in 1901, they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia contributed more than 400,000 troops to Allied efforts during World War I, and Australian troops played a large role in the defeat of Japanese troops in the Pacific in World War II. Australia severed most constitutional links with the UK in 1942, but remained part of the British Commonwealth. In 2021, Australia, the UK, and the US announced the AUKUS enhanced trilateral security partnership to maintain and expand the three countries’ edge in military capabilities and critical technologies. Australia’s post-war economy boomed and by the 1970s, racial policies that prevented most non-Whites from immigrating to Australia were removed, greatly increasing Asian immigration to the country. In recent decades, Australia has become an internationally competitive, advanced market economy due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s and its proximity to East and Southeast Asia. 



Australia - Geography 2023
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Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map referenceOceania

Area
Total: 7,741,220 km²
Land: 7,682,300 km²
Water: 58,920 km²
Note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
Comparative: slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation
Highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,228 m
Lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
Mean elevation: 330 m

Natural resources: alumina, coal, iron ore, copper, lithium, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, rare earth elements, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, opals, natural gas, petroleum
Note 1: Australia is the world's largest net exporter of coal accounting for 26.5% of global coal exports in 2021; coal is the country’s most abundant energy resource, and coal ranks as the second-largest export commodity from Australia in terms of revenue; in 2020, Australia held the third-largest recoverable coal reserves in the world behind the United States and Russia
Note 2: Australia is by far the world's largest supplier of opals
Note 3: Australia holds the largest uranium reserves in the world, and was the second-largest global uranium producer behind Kazakhstan in 2020.
Note 4: Australia was the largest exporter of LNG in the world in 2020.
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 46.65% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 4.03% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.04% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 42.58% (2018 est.)
Forest: 17.42% (2018 est.)
Other: 33.42% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 15,210 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km: River Murray - 2,508 km; Darling River - 1,545 km; Murrumbidgee River - 1,485 km; Lachlan River - 1,339 km; Cooper Creek - 1,113 km; Flinders River - 1,004 km

Major watersheds area km²:
Indian Ocean drainage: (Great Australian Bight) Murray-Darling (1,050,116 km²)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Eyre (1,212,198 km²)


Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 2.29 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 2.89 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 8.57 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 492 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Geography
Note note 1: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; the largest country in Oceania, the largest country entirely in the Southern Hemisphere, and the largest country without land borders
Note note 2: the Great Dividing Range that runs along eastern Australia is that continent’s longest mountain range and the third-longest land-based range in the world; the term "Great Dividing Range" refers to the fact that the mountains form a watershed crest from which all of the rivers of eastern Australia flow - east, west, north, and south
Note note 3: Australia is the only continent without glaciers; it is the driest inhabited continent on earth, making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world; Australia is home to 10% of the world's biodiversity, and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world


Australia - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: population is primarily located on the periphery, with the highest concentration of people residing in the east and southeast; a secondary population center is located in and around Perth in the west; of the States and Territories, New South Wales has, by far, the largest population; the interior, or "outback", has a very sparse population: 26,461,166 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.19% (2023 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Australian(s)
Adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:
English 33%, Australian 29.9%, Irish 9.5%, Scottish 8.6%, Chinese 5.5%, Italian 4.4%, German 4%, Indian 3.1%, Australian Aboriginal 2.9%, Greek 1.7%, unspecified 4.7%



Languages: English 72%, Mandarin 2.7%, Arabic 1.4%, Vietnamese 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, other 15.7%, unspecified 5.7% (2021 est.)
Note: data represent language spoken at home

Religions: Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant 18.1% (Anglican 9.8%, Uniting Church 2.6%, Presbyterian and Reformed 1.6%, Baptist 1.4%, Pentecostal 1%, other Protestant 1.7%), other Christian 3.5%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 2.7%, Buddhist 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3% (Eastern Orthodox 2.1%, Oriental Orthodox 0.2%), other 2.1%, none 38.4%, unspecified 7.3% (2021 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.43% (male 2,515,636/female 2,359,859)
15-64 years: 64.89% (male 8,602,204/female 8,568,004)
65 years and over: 16.69% (2023 est.) (male 2,034,383/female 2,381,080)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.7
Youth dependency ratio: 28.2
Elderly dependency ratio: 25.5
Potential support ratio: 3.9 (2020 est.)

Median age
Total: 37.9 years (2023 est.)
Male: 36.8 years
Female: 39 years

Population growth rate: 1.19% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 12.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population is primarily located on the periphery, with the highest concentration of people residing in the east and southeast; a secondary population center is located in and around Perth in the west; of the States and Territories, New South Wales has, by far, the largest population; the interior, or "outback", has a very sparse population

Urbanization
Urban population: 86.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.27% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Note: data include Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, and Norfolk Island

Major urban areas
Population: 5.235 million Melbourne, 5.121 million Sydney, 2.505 million Brisbane, 2.118 million Perth, 1.367 million Adelaide, 472,000 CANBERRA (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, deforestation, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; limited natural freshwater resources; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; drought, desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; disruption of the fragile ecosystem has resulted in significant floral extinctions; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; overfishing, pollution, and invasive species are also problems
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 8.93 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 375.91 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 105.01 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 28.7 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 3 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 83.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 81.1 years
Female: 85.5 years

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 66.9% (2015/16)
Note: percent of women aged 18-44

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 10.7% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 4.13 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 3.8 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 29% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 9.51 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.71 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 3.67 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.32 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.81 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 13.6% (2020 est.)
Male: 15.6% (2020 est.)
Female: 11.5% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 6.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 21 years
Male: 20 years
Female: 22 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 10.8% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 12.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.9%


Australia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
Conventional short form: Australia
Etymology: the name Australia derives from the Latin "australis" meaning "southern"; the Australian landmass was long referred to as "Terra Australis" or the Southern Land

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital
Name: Canberra
Geographic coordinates: 35 16 S, 149 08 E
Time difference: UTC+10 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends first Sunday in April
Time zone note: Australia has four time zones, including Lord Howe Island (UTC+10:30)
Etymology: the name is claimed to derive from either Kambera or Camberry, which are names corrupted from the original native designation for the area "Nganbra" or "Nganbira"

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: (6) Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island (6)

Independence: 1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day (commemorates the arrival of the First Fleet of Australian settlers), 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorates the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)

Constitution
History: approved in a series of referenda from 1898 through 1900 and became law 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires approval of a referendum bill by absolute majority vote in both houses of Parliament, approval in a referendum by a majority of voters in at least four states and in the territories, and Royal Assent; proposals that would reduce a state’s representation in either house or change a state’s boundaries require that state’s approval prior to Royal Assent; amended several times, last in 1977

Legal system: common law system based on the English model

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Australia
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)
Head of government: Prime Minister Anthony ALBANESE (since 23 May 2022)
Cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and sworn in by the governor general
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral Federal Parliament consists of:
Senate (76 seats; 12 members from each of the 6 states and 2 each from the 2 mainland territories; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of state membership renewed every 3 years and territory membership renewed every 3 years)
House of Representatives (151 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by majority preferential vote; members serve terms of up to 3 years)

Elections:
Senate - last held on 21 May 2022 (next to be held in May 2,025)
House of Representatives - last held on 21 May 2022 (next to be held in May 2,025)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party or bloc - Liberal/National Coalition 40.7%, ALP 34.2%, Greens 14.5%, Pauline Hansen's One Nation 2.6%, Jacqui Lambee Network 2.6%, United Australia Party 1.3%, Independents 3.9%; seats by party or bloc - Liberal/National Coalition 31, ALP 26, Australian Greens 11, Pauline Hansen's One Nation 2, Jacqui Lambee Network 2, United Australia Party 1, Independents 3; composition - 33 men, 43 women; percentage of women 56.6%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party or bloc - ALP 50.9%, Coalition 36.4%, 7.9%, 2.6%, others less than 1%; seats by party or bloc - ALP 77, Coalition 55, Independent 12, Greens 4, Katter's 1, Center Alliance 1; composition: 93 men, 58 women; percentage of women 38.4%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: High Court of Australia (consists of 7 justices, including the chief justice); note - each of the 6 states, 2 territories, and Norfolk Island has a Supreme Court; the High Court is the final appellate court beyond the state and territory supreme courts
Judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor-general in council for life with mandatory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: subordinate courts: at the federal level: Federal Court; Federal Circuit and Family Court of Australia; at the state and territory level: Local Court - New South Wales; Magistrates' Courts - Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory; District Courts - New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia; County Court - Victoria; Family Court - Western Australia; Court of Petty Sessions - Norfolk Island  

Political parties and leaders:
Australian Greens Party or The Greens [Adam BANDT]
Australian Labor Party or ALP [Anthony ALBANESE]
Centre Alliance (formerly known as the Nick Xenophon Team or NXT) [none]
Jacqui Lambie Network or JLN [Jacqui LAMBIE]
Katter's Australian Party [Robbie KATTER]
Liberal Party of Australia [Peter DUTTON]
The Nationals [David LITTLEPROUD]
One Nation or ONP [Pauline HANSON]
United Australia Party [Clive PALMER]

Note: the Labor Party is Australia’s oldest political party, established federally in 1901; the present Liberal Party was formed in 1944; the Country Party was formed in 1920, renamed the National Country Party in 1975, the National Party of Australia in 1982, and since 2003 has been known as the Nationals; since the general election of 1949, the Liberal Party and the Nationals (under various names) when forming government have done so as a coalition

International organization participation: ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CP, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF, SAARC (observer), Quad, SICA (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin Michael RUDD[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Australia: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small, five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

National symbols: Commonwealth Star (seven-pointed Star of Federation), golden wattle tree (Acacia pycnantha), kangaroo, emu; national colors: green, gold

National anthem
Name: Advance Australia Fair
Lyrics/music: Peter Dodds McCORMICK
Note 1: adopted 1984; although originally written in the late 19th century, the anthem was not used for all official occasions until 1984; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the King" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
Note 2: the well-known and much-loved bush ballad "Waltzing Matilda" is often referred to as Australia's unofficial national anthem; the original lyrics were written in 1895 by Australian poet Banjo PATERSON, and were first published as sheet music in 1903; since 2012, a Waltzing Matilda Day has been held annually on 6 April, the anniversary of the first performance of the song in 1895

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 20 (4 cultural, 12 natural, 4 mixed); note - includes one site on Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


Australia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: Asian and global economic leader and partner for 3 decades; strong financial sector and highly traded domestic currency support best credit ratings; aging workforce; export-led model; reduced consumer spending offset by government and business; energy investor

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.279 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.251 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.251 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
2.24% (2021 est.)
-0.05% (2020 est.)
2.17% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 56.9% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 18.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 21.5% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -21% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3.6% (2017 est.)
Industry: 25.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 71.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: -0.55% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 13.786 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.11% (2021 est.)
6.46% (2020 est.)
5.16% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 10.8% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 12.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.9%

Population below poverty line

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 34.3 (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2%
Highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $479.33 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $532.579 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
69.41% of GDP (2020 est.)
60.25% of GDP (2019 est.)
54.49% of GDP (2018 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 22.61% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.13% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.78% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance:
$56.261 billion (2021 est.)
$35.601 billion (2020 est.)
$7.658 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
2.86% (2021 est.)
0.85% (2020 est.)
1.61% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$56.261 billion (2021 est.)
$35.601 billion (2020 est.)
$7.658 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$389.794 billion (2021 est.)
$300.77 billion (2020 est.)
$342.485 billion (2019 est.)

Note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.
Partners: China 40%, Japan 14%, South Korea 9%, India 6%, Taiwan 4% (2021)
Commodities: iron ore, coal, natural gas, gold, wheat (2021)

Imports:
$298.712 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$250.178 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$295.504 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 28%, United States 10%, Japan 6%, Germany 5%, Thailand 5% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, cars, delivery trucks, broadcasting equipment, computers and gold (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$57.878 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$42.545 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$57.995 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$3,115,913,000,000 (2019 est.)
$2,837,818,000,000 (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.331 (2021 est.)
1.453 (2020 est.)
1.439 (2019 est.)
1.338 (2018 est.)
1.305 (2017 est.)



Australia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 237,388,272,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 82.517 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 75.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 8.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 8.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 6.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 442,500 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 1,174,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 197,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 356,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 2.446 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 462,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 64,120 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 619,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 142,104,321,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 41,905,381,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 101,766,728,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Imports: 6,295,646,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 3,228,115,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Note: Australia was the largest exporter of LNG in the world in 2020.

Carbon dioxide emissions: 417.87 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 162.26 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 158.668 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 96.942 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 241.004 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Australia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 6,409,275 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 27.09 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) runs multiple national and local radio networks and TV stations, as well as ABC Australia, a TV service that broadcasts in the Asia-Pacific region and is the main public broadcaster; Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), a second large public broadcaster, operates radio and TV networks broadcasting in multiple languages; several large national commercial TV networks, a large number of local commercial TV stations, and hundreds of commercial radio stations are accessible; cable and satellite systems are available (2022)

Internet country code: .au

Internet users
Total: 24.96 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 96% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 9,099,619 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (2020 est.)


Australia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2023 est.)
2% of GDP (2022)
2.1% of GDP (2021)
2.1% of GDP (2020)
2% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces: Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force (2023)
Note 1: the Army includes a Special Operations Command, while the Navy includes a Naval Aviation Force
Note 2: the Australian Federal Police is an independent agency of the Attorney-General’s Department; it, along with state and territorial police forces are responsible for internal security; the Australian Border Force is under the Department of Home Affairs 

Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age (with parental consent) for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription (abolished 1973) (2023)
Note 1: foreign nationals who are permanent residents, particularly New Zealanders, or those who have applied for citizenship or overseas candidates who have appropriate experience and qualifications from an overseas military can apply to join the ADF 
Note 2: women have served in all roles, including combat arms, since 2013; in 2022, they comprised about 20% of the military

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Australia - Transportation 2023top of page


National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 583
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 75,667,645 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,027,640,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: VH

Airports: 418 (2021)
With paved runways: 349
With paved runways civil airports: 29
With paved runways military airports: 17
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 2
With paved runways other airports: 301
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 131
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 349
Civil airports: 29
Military airports: 17
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 2
Other airports: 301
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 131
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)

Pipelines: 637 km condensate/gas, 30,054 km gas, 240 km liquid petroleum gas, 3,609 km oil, 110 km oil/gas/water, 72 km refined products (2013)

Railways
Total: 36,064 km (2022) 3,448 km electrified
Standard gauge: 18,007 km (2022) 1.435 mm
Narrow gauge: 11,914 km (2022) 1.067 mm
Broad gauge: 2,685 km (2022) 1.600 mm
Other: 35 km (2015)

Roadways
Total: 873,573 km (2015)
Urban: 145,928 km (2015)
Non-urban: 727,645 km (2015)

Waterways: 2,000 km (2011) (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling River systems)

Merchant marine
Total: 587 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 2, general cargo 77, oil tanker 6, other 502

Ports and terminals
Major seaports:

Indian Ocean:
Adelaide, Darwin, Fremantle, Geelong, Melbourne
Pacific Ocean: Brisbane, Cairns, Gladstone, Hobart, Newcastle, Port Port Kembla, Sydney

Container ports teus: Melbourne (2,909,288), Sydney (2,761,648) (2021)
Lng terminals export: Australia Pacific, Barrow Island, Burrup (Pluto), Curtis Island, Darwin, Karratha, Bladin Point (Ichthys), Gladstone, Prelude (offshore FLNG), Wheatstone
Dry bulk cargo ports: Dampier (iron ore), Dalrymple Bay (coal), Hay Point (coal), Port Hedland (iron ore), Port Walcott (iron ore)


Australia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Australia-Indonesia: Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef 


Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 12,180 (Iran), 8,741 (Afghanistan), 5,042 (Pakistan) (mid-year 2022)
Stateless persons: 7,649 (2022)

Illicit drugs:  amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and cannabis dominate the domestic illicit drug market and shown potential for expansion, with ATS accounting for the preponderance of detected imports; domestic heroin market is small, but also shown some growth; as of 2020, Malaysia was the primary embarkation point for heroin and ATS imports other than MDMA (ecstasy) for which South Korea was the primary embarkation point although MDMA is increasingly being produced domestically with number of detected labs nearly doubled. The US is the principal embarkation point for imported cannabis; Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines


Economy Bookings


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