Statistical information Bermuda 2023Bermuda

Map of Bermuda | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Bermuda in the World
Bermuda in the World


Bermuda - Introduction 2023
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Background: Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists heading for Virginia. Self-governing since 1620, Bermuda is the oldest and most populous of the British overseas territories. Vacationing to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has also developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995.

Bermuda - Geography 2023
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Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map referenceNorth America

Total: 54 km²
Land: 54 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Highest point: Town Hill 79 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 14.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 14.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)
Forest: 20% (2018 est.)
Other: 65.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Note: consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995

Bermuda - People 2023
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Distribution: relatively even population distribution throughout: 72,576 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.32% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 11% (2008 est.)

Noun: Bermudian(s)
Adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: African descent 52%, White 31%, mixed 9%, Asian 4%, other 4% (2010 est.)

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Religions: Protestant 46.2% (includes Anglican 15.8%, African Methodist Episcopal 8.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.7, Pentecostal 3.5%, Methodist 2.7%, Presbyterian 2.0%, Church of God 1.6%, Baptist 1.2%, Salvation Army 1.1%, Brethren 1.0%, other Protestant 2.0%), Roman Catholic 14.5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other Christian 9.1%, Muslim 1%, other 3.9%, none 17.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 16.45% (male 6,126/female 5,815)
15-64 years: 61.66% (male 22,401/female 22,347)
65 years and over: 21.89% (2023 est.) (male 6,763/female 9,124)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 52.9
Youth dependency ratio: 22.8
Elderly dependency ratio: 30.1
Potential support ratio: 3.3 (2021)

Median age
Total: 43.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 41.4 years
Female: 46.3 years

Population growth rate: 0.32% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: relatively even population distribution throughout

Urban population: 100% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 10,000 HAMILTON (capital) (2018)

Current issues: dense population and heavy vehicle traffic create serious congestion and air pollution problems; water resources scarce (most obtained as rainwater or from wells); solid waste disposal; hazardous waste disposal; sewage disposal; overfishing; oil spills

Air pollutants
Carbon dioxide emissions: 0.61 megatons (2016 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 82.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 79.2 years
Female: 85.5 years

Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 99.9% of population
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: 99.9% of population
Unimproved urban: 0.1% of population
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: 0.1% of population (2020)

Current health expenditure: NA

Physicians density: NA

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.9% of population

rural: NA

total: 99.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.1% of population

rural: NA

total: 0.1% of population (2020)


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 1.9% of GDP (2021 est.)

Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 13 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 13 years (2015)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 29.3% (2014 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 29.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 29%

Bermuda - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Bermuda
Former: Somers Islands
Etymology: the islands making up Bermuda are named after Juan de BERMUDEZ, an early 16th century Spanish sea captain and the first European explorer of the archipelago

Government type: Overseas Territory of the UK with limited self-government; parliamentary democracy

Name: Hamilton
Geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Etymology: named after Henry HAMILTON (ca. 1734-1796) who served as governor of Bermuda from 1788-1794

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick

Dependent areas

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May; note - formerly known as Victoria Day, Empire Day, and Commonwealth Day

History: several previous (dating to 1684); latest entered into force 8 June 1968 (Bermuda Constitution Order 1968)
Amendments: proposal procedure - NA; passage by an Order in Council in the UK; amended several times, last in 2012

Legal system: English common law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the UK
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Rena LALGIE (since 14 December 2020)
Head of government: Premier David BURT (since 19 July 2017)
Cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (11 seats; 3 members appointed by the governor, 5 by the premier, and 3 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms) 
House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)

Senate - last appointments in 2022 (next appointments in 2,027)
House of Assembly - last held on 1 October 2020 (next to be held not later than 2,025)

Election results:
Senate - composition as of October 2023 - men 4, women 7, percent of women 63.6%
House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - PLP 62.1%, OBA 32.3%, other 5.4%, independent 0.2%; seats by party - PLP 30, OBA 6 1 vacant; composition as of October 2023 - men 26, women 9, percent of women 25%; note - total Parliament percent of women as of September 2023 - 34%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and at least 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 4 puisne judges, and 1 associate justice); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) is the court of final appeal
Judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal justice appointed by the governor; justice tenure by individual appointment; Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission and appointed by the governor; judge tenure based on terms of appointment
Subordinate courts: commercial court (began in 2006); magistrates' courts

Political parties and leaders:
Free Democratic Movement or FDM [Marc A. R. BEAN]
One Bermuda Alliance or OBA [N. H. Cole SIMONS]
Progressive Labor Party or PLP [E. David BURT]

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), UPU, WCO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none (overseas territory of the UK)
From the us chief of mission: Consul General Karen GRISSETTE (since 6 July 2021)
From the us embassy: US Consulate Bermuda, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, DV 03, Bermuda
From the us mailing address: 5,300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20,520-5,300
From the us telephone: (441) 295-1342
From the us FAX: (441) 295-1592
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Bermuda: red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag; it was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to the settling of Bermuda
Note: the flag is unusual in that it is only British overseas territory that uses a red ensign, all others use blue

National symbols: red lion

National anthem
Name: Hail to Bermuda
Lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS
Note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural); note - excerpted from the UK entry
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications

Bermuda - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: small, tourism- and construction-based, territorial-island economy; American import and tourist destination; known offshore banking hub; increasing inflation; major re-exportation and re-importation area

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$5.127 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars
$4.863 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars
$5.22 billion (2019 est.)

Real gdp growth rate:
5.41% (2021 est.)
-6.84% (2020 est.)
0.31% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 51.3% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 15.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 13.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 49.8% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)
Industry: 5.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 93.8% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: international business, tourism, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate: 0.1% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 33,480 (2016 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
7% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 29.3% (2014 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 29.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 29%

Population below poverty line: 11% (2008 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: NA
Highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $999.2 million (2017 est.)
Expenditures: $1.176 billion (2017 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt: 43% of GDP (FY14/15)

Taxes and other revenues: 16.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
$1.015 billion (2021 est.)
$853.85 million (2020 est.)
$838.701 million (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.9% (2017 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$1.015 billion (2021 est.)
$853.85 million (2020 est.)
$838.701 million (2019 est.)

$1.123 billion (2021 est.)
$1.027 billion (2020 est.)
$1.605 billion (2019 est.)

Note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.
Partners: Jamaica 49.1%, Luxembourg 36.1%, US 4.9% (2017)
Commodities: recreational boats, ships, trailers, aircraft, fertilizers (2021)

$1.925 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.723 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.224 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: United States 44%, South Korea 17%, Germany 10%, Canada 8% (2019)
Commodities: ships, refined petroleum, postage stamps, recreational boats, aircraft (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$2.515 billion (2017 est.)
$2.435 billion (2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar - 1 (2021 est.)
1 (2020 est.)
1 (2019 est.)
1 (2018 est.)
1 (2017 est.)

Bermuda - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 533.434 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 172,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 5,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 3,939 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 796,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 796,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 176.312 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Bermuda - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 25,000 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 68,000 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 3 TV stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 13 radio stations operating

Internet country code: .bm

Internet users
Total: 64,000 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 100% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 23,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

Bermuda - Military 2023
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces: Royal Bermuda Regiment; Bermuda Police Service (2023)
Note: the Royal Bermuda Regiment (aka "The Regiment") includes the Royal Bermuda Regiment Coast Guard

Military service age and obligation: men and women who are Commonwealth citizens and 18-45 years of age can volunteer for the Bermuda Regiment; service is for a minimum period of three years and two months from the date of enlistment; service can be extended only by volunteering or an executive order from the Governor; annual training commitment is about 30 days a year, which includes a two-week camp, weekends, and drill nights (2023)

Terrorist groups

Bermuda - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: VP-B

Airports: 1 (2021)
With paved runways: 1
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with paved runways: 1
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways




Total: 447 km (2010)
Paved: 447 km (2010)
Note: 225 km public roads; 222 km private roads


Merchant marine
Total: 135 (2022)
By type: container ship 14, oil tanker 15, other 106

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George

Bermuda - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Sightseeing Pass

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