Statistical information Burundi 2023Burundi

Map of Burundi | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Burundi in the World
Burundi in the World


Burundi - Introduction 2023
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Background: Established in the 1600s, the Burundi Kingdom has had borders similar to those of modern Burundi since the 1800s. Burundi’s two major ethnic groups, the majority Hutu and minority Tutsi, share a common language and culture and largely lived in peaceful cohabitation under Tutsi monarchs in pre-colonial Burundi. Regional, class, and clan distinctions contributed to social status in the Burundi Kingdom, yielding a complex class structure. German colonial rule in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and Belgian rule after World War I preserved Burundi’s monarchy. Seeking to simplify administration, Belgian colonial officials reduced the number of chiefdoms and eliminated most Hutu chiefs from positions of power. In 1961, the Burundian Tutsi king’s oldest son, Louis RWAGASORE was murdered by a competing political faction shortly before he was set to become prime minister, triggering increased political competition that contributed to later instability. Burundi gained its independence from Belgium in 1962 as the Kingdom of Burundi.

Burundi - Geography 2023
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Location: Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 27,830 km²
Land: 25,680 km²
Water: 2,150 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries
Total: 1,140 km
Border countries: (3) Democratic Republic of the Congo 236 km; Rwanda 315 km; Tanzania 589 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Highest point: unnamed elevation on Mukike Range 2,685 m
Lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
Mean elevation: 1,504 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 73.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 38.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 15.6% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 18.8% (2018 est.)
Forest: 6.6% (2018 est.)
Other: 20.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 230 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 km²), (Mediterranean Sea) Nile (3,254,853 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 40 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 220 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 12.54 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding; landslides; drought

Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile

Burundi - People 2023
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Distribution: one of Africa's most densely populated countries; concentrations tend to be in the north and along the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika in the west; most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil as shown in this [link]: 13,162,952 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 3.59% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 64.6% (2014 est.)

Noun: Burundian(s)
Adjective: Burundian

Ethnic groups: Hutu, Tutsi, Twa, Phuthi, South Asian

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), English (official, least spoken), Swahili (2008 est.)
Major-language samples:
Igitabo Mpuzamakungu c'ibimenyetso bifatika, isoko ntabanduka ku nkuru z'urufatiro. (Kirundi)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Note: data represent languages read and written by people 10 years of age or older; spoken Kirundi is nearly universal

Religions: Christian 93.9% (Roman Catholic 58.6%, Protestant 35.3% [includes Adventist 2.7% and other Protestant religions 32.6%]), Muslim 3.4%, other 1.3%, none 1.3% (2016-17 est.)

Demographic profile: Burundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees, results in smaller, overworked, and less-productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With almost two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 5 children per woman as of 2022, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 42.67% (male 2,830,996/female 2,786,154)
15-64 years: 54.03% (male 3,523,380/female 3,588,511)
65 years and over: 3.3% (2023 est.) (male 187,176/female 246,735)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 95.2
Youth dependency ratio: 90.4
Elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
Potential support ratio: 20.7 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 18.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 17.9 years
Female: 18.5 years

Population growth rate: 3.59% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 34.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: one of Africa's most densely populated countries; concentrations tend to be in the north and along the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika in the west; most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 14.8% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.207 million BUJUMBURA (capital) (2023)

Current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 28 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 0.5 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 1.42 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 21.5 years (2016/17 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 494 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 36.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 40.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 32.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 65.7 years
Female: 70 years

Total fertility rate: 4.96 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 28.5% (2016/17)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 98.7% of population
Improved rural: 78.9% of population
Improved total: 81.6% of population
Unimproved urban: 1.3% of population
Unimproved rural: 21.1% of population
Unimproved total: 18.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 6.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 0.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
87.4% of population

rural: 53.7% of population

total: 58.4% of population

Unimproved urban:
12.6% of population

rural: 46.3% of population

total: 41.6% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Burundi is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 5.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 4.07 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.84 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 2.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 11.8% (2020 est.)
Male: 17.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 6.1% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 27.6% (2022)

Education expenditures: 5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 74.7%
Male: 81.3%
Female: 68.4% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2018)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 3.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 4.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 2.5%

Burundi - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
Conventional short form: Burundi
Local long form: Republique du Burundi (French)/ Republika y'u Burundi (Kirundi)
Local short form: Burundi
Former: Urundi, German East Africa, Ruanda-Urundi, Kingdom of Burundi
Etymology: name derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi (17th-19th century)

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Gitega (political capital), Bujumbura (commercial capital); note - in January 2019, the Burundian parliament voted to make Gitega the political capital of the country while Bujumbura would remain its economic capital; as of 2023, the government's move to Gitega remains incomplete
Geographic coordinates: 3 25 S, 29 55 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the naming origins for both Gitega and Bujumbura are obscure; Bujumbura's name prior to independence in 1962 was Usumbura

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi; note- a law was passed in March 2023 reducing the number of provinces to five: Buhumuza, Bujumbura, Burunga, Butanyerera, Gitega, with full implementation by 2,025

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

History: several previous, ratified by referendum 28 February 2005
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic after consultation with the government or by absolute majority support of the membership in both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Senate membership and at least four-fifths majority vote by the National Assembly; the president can opt to submit amendment bills to a referendum; constitutional articles including those on national unity, the secularity of Burundi, its democratic form of government, and its sovereignty cannot be amended; amended 2018 (amendments extended the presidential term from 5 to 7 years, reintroduced the position of prime minister, and reduced the number of vice presidents from 2 to 1)

Legal system: mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew from ICCt in October 2017

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (since 18 June 2020); Vice President Prosper BAZOMBANZA (since 24 June 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (since 18 June 2020); Vice President Prosper BAZOMBANZA (since 24 June 2020); Prime Minister Gervais NDIRAKOBUCA (since 7 September 2022)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2020 (next to be held in May 2,027); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament; note - a 2018 constitutional referendum effective for the 2020 election, increased the presidential term from 5 to 7 years with a 2-consecutive-term limit, reinstated the position of the prime minister position, and reduced the number of vice presidents from 2 to 1
Election results:
2020: Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE elected president; percent of vote - Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (CNDD-FDD) 71.5%, Agathon RWASA (CNL) 25.2%, Gaston SINDIMWO (UPRONA) 1.7%, other 1.6%

2015: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (Hope of Burundians - Amizerio y'ABARUNDI) 19%, other 11.6%  

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Inama Nkenguzamateka (39 seats in the July 2020 election); 36 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three-round voting system, which requires a two-thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 3 seats reserved for Twas, and 30% of all votes reserved for women; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (123 seats in the May 2020 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 23 co-opted members; 60% of seats allocated to Hutus and 40% to Tutsis; 3 seats reserved for Twas; 30% of total seats reserved for women; members serve 5-year terms)

Senate - last held on 20 July 2020 (next to be held in 2,025)
National Assembly - last held on 20 May 2020 (next to be held in 2,025)

Election results:

Senate - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 87.2%, Twa 7.7%, CNL 2.6%, UPRONA 2.6%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 34, Twa 3, CNL 1, UPRONA 1; composition - men 23, women 16, percent of women 37.2% National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 70.9%, CNL 23.4%, UPRONA 2.5%, other (co-opted Twa) 3.2%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 86, CNL 32, Twa 3, UPRONA 2; composition - men 76, women 47, percent of women 38.2%; note - total Parliament percent of women 38%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member body of judicial and legal profession officials), appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate and serve 6-year nonrenewable terms
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence; Martial Court; Commercial Court

Political parties and leaders:
Council for Democracy and the Sustainable Development of Burundi or CODEBU [Keffa NIBIZI]
Front for Democracy in Burundi-Sahwanya or FRODEBU-Sahwanya [Patrick NKURUNZIZA]
National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE]
National Congress for Liberty or CNL [Agathon RWASA]
National Liberation Forces or FNL [Jacques BIGIRIMANA]
Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Olivier NKURUNZIZA] 


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Bosco BAREGE (since 11 January 2024); Chargé d'Affaires Geneviève NIZIGIYIMANA (since 3 October 2023)  
In the us chancery: 2,233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-2,574
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 342-2,578
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Keith GILGES (since June 2022)
From the us embassy: B.P. 1720, Avenue Des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
From the us mailing address: 2,100 Bujumbura Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,100
From the us telephone: [257] 22-207-000
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Burundi: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress

National symbols: lion; national colors: red, white, green

National anthem
Name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
Lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
Note: adopted 1962

National heritage

Burundi - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: highly agrarian, low-income Sub-Saharan economy; declining foreign assistance; increasing fiscal insolvencies; dense and still growing population; COVID-19 weakened economic recovery and flipped two years of deflation

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$8.849 billion (2021 est.)
$8.693 billion (2020 est.)
$8.665 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
1.8% (2021 est.)
0.33% (2020 est.)
1.81% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 83% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 16% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 5.5% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -25.3% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 39.5% (2017 est.)
Industry: 16.4% (2017 est.)
Services: 44.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: light consumer goods (sugar, shoes, soap, beer); cement, assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing (fruits)

Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 5.271 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
1.79% (2021 est.)
1.71% (2020 est.)
1.59% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 3.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 4.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 2.5%

Population below poverty line: 64.6% (2014 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 38.6 (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 4.1%
Highest 10%: 28% (2006)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $747 million (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $1.111 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -5.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
51.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 15.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

From forest resources: 10.31% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$362.645 million (2018 est.)
-$373.389 million (2017 est.)
-$339.695 million (2016 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
8.4% (2021 est.)
7.32% (2020 est.)
-0.69% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$362.645 million (2018 est.)
-$373.389 million (2017 est.)
-$339.695 million (2016 est.)

$285.105 million (2018 est.)
$270.686 million (2017 est.)
$315 million (2017 est.)

Note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.
Partners: United Arab Emirates 50%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7% (2019)
Commodities: gold, coffee, tea, raw earth metal ores, beer (2021)
Commodities note: rare earth metal ores include zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, and niobium

$905.294 million (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$885.422 million (2017 est.)
$1.295 billion (2017 est.)

Partners: China 14%, Saudi Arabia 14%, India 9%, Kenya 7%, United Arab Emirates 7%, Tanzania 5%, Zambia 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, packaged medicines, cement, raw sugar, cars (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$266.164 million (31 December 2021 est.)
$90.319 million (31 December 2020 est.)
$111.374 million (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$610.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$622.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar - 1,975.951 (2021 est.)
1,915.046 (2020 est.)
1,845.623 (2019 est.)
1,782.877 (2018 est.)
1,729.055 (2017 est.)

Burundi - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 11 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 10.2% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 62.8% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 1.6% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 440.774 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 100 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 100,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 33.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 62.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 5,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 1,374 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 715,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 715,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 1.087 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Burundi - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 14,918 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 7,740,494 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 62 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-controlled Radio Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates a TV station and a national radio network; 3 private TV stations and about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2019)

Internet country code: .bi

Internet users
Total: 754,000 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 5.8% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 4,230 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.04 (2020 est.)

Burundi - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2.3% of GDP (2022 est.)
2% of GDP (2021 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2020 est.)
3% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces: National Defense Force of Burundi (Force de Defense Nationale du Burundi or FDNB): Land Force (Force Terrestre), the Navy Force (Force Marine), the Air Force (Force Aerienne) and Specialized Units (Unites Specialisees) (2023)
Note 1: the Specialized Units include a special security brigade for the protection of institutions (aka BSPI) commandos, special forces and military police
Note 2: in 2022, Burundi created a new reserve force (Force de réserve et d’appui au développement, FRAD); the FRAD's duties include organizing paramilitary trainings, supporting other components in protecting the integrity of the national territory, conceiving and implementing development projects, and operationalizing national and international partnerships
Note 3: the Burundi National Police (Police Nationale du Burundi) are under the Ministry of Interior, Community Development, and Public Security

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women (2023)

Terrorist groups

Burundi - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 9U

Airports: 7 (2021)
With paved runways: 1
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 6
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 1
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 6
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)



Total: 12,322 km (2016)
Paved: 1,500 km (2016)
Unpaved: 10,822 km (2016)

Waterways: 673 km (2022) (mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals
Lake ports: Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)

Burundi - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region

Burundi's Ngozi province and Rwanda's Butare province dispute the two-kilometer-square hilly farmed area of Sabanerwa in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965 around Kibinga Hill in Rwanda's Butare Province

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 86,799 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2023)
IDPs: 76,987 (some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015) (2023)
Stateless persons: 767 (mid-year 2021)

Illicit drugs


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