Statistical information Cameroon 2023Cameroon

Map of Cameroon | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Cameroon in the World
Cameroon in the World

Economy Bookings

Cameroon - Introduction 2023
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Background: Much of the area of present-day Cameroon was ruled by powerful chiefdoms before becoming a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the UK as League of Nations mandates. French Cameroon became independent in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon. The following year the southern portion of neighboring British Cameroon voted to merge with the new country to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1972, a new constitution replaced the federation with a unitary state, the United Republic of Cameroon. The country has generally enjoyed stability, which has enabled the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Nonetheless, unrest and violence in the country's two western, English-speaking regions has persisted since 2016. Movement toward democratic reform is slow and political power remains firmly in the hands of President Paul BIYA.

Cameroon - Geography 2023
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Location: Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 475,440 km²
Land: 472,710 km²
Water: 2,730 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than California; about four times the size of Pennsylvania

Land boundaries
Total: 5,018 km
Border countries: (6) Central African Republic 901 km; Chad 1,116 km; Republic of the Congo 494 km; Equatorial Guinea 183 km; Gabon 349 km; Nigeria 1975 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Highest point: Fako on Mont Cameroun 4,045 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 667 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 20.6% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 13.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 3.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 4.2% (2018 est.)
Forest: 41.7% (2018 est.)
Other: 37.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 290 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 km²), Niger (2,261,741 km²)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Chad (2,497,738 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 250 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 100 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 740 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 283.15 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa because of its central location on the continent and its position at the west-south juncture of the Gulf of Guinea; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

Cameroon - People 2023
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Distribution: population concentrated in the west and north, with the interior of the country sparsely populated as shown in this [link]: 30,135,732 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 2.73% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 37.5% (2014 est.)

Noun: Cameroonian(s)
Adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Bamileke-Bamu 24.3%, Beti/Bassa, Mbam 21.6%, Biu-Mandara 14.6%, Arab-Choa/Hausa/Kanuri 11%, Adamawa-Ubangi, 9.8%, Grassfields 7.7%, Kako, Meka/Pygmy 3.3%, Cotier/Ngoe/Oroko 2.7%, Southwestern Bantu 0.7%, foreign/other ethnic group 4.5% (2018 est.)

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Major-language samples:
Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

Gheos World Guide, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

Religions: Christian 70.7% (Roman Catholic 38.3%, Protestant 25.5%, other Christian 6.9%), Muslim 24.4%, animist 2.2%, other 0.5%, none 2.2% (2018 est.)

Demographic profile: Cameroon has a large youth population, with more than 60% of the populace under the age of 25 as of 2020. Fertility is falling but remains at a high level, especially among poor, rural, and uneducated women, in part because of inadequate access to contraception. Life expectancy remains low at about 55 years due to the prevalence of HIV and AIDs and an elevated maternal mortality rate, which has remained high since 1990. Cameroon, particularly the northern region, is vulnerable to food insecurity largely because of government mismanagement, corruption, high production costs, inadequate infrastructure, and natural disasters. Despite economic growth in some regions, poverty is on the rise, and is most prevalent in rural areas, which are especially affected by a shortage of jobs, declining incomes, poor school and health care infrastructure, and a lack of clean water and sanitation. Underinvestment in social safety nets and ineffective public financial management also contribute to Cameroon’s high rate of poverty. The activities of Boko Haram, other armed groups, and counterinsurgency operations have worsened food insecurity in the Far North region.  
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 41.69% (male 6,337,141/female 6,226,100)
15-64 years: 55.12% (male 8,231,473/female 8,379,699)
65 years and over: 3.19% (2023 est.) (male 447,656/female 513,663)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 82.3
Youth dependency ratio: 77.3
Elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
Potential support ratio: 20.3 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 18.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 18.5 years
Female: 19.1 years

Population growth rate: 2.73% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 35.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population concentrated in the west and north, with the interior of the country sparsely populated as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 59.3% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 3.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 4.509 million YAOUNDE (capital), 4.063 million Douala (2023)

Current issues: waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation and overgrazing result in erosion, desertification, and reduced quality of pastureland; poaching; overfishing; overhunting
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 56.37 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 8.29 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 30.71 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 20.1 years (2018 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 438 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 47.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 42.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 61.9 years
Female: 65.6 years

Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 19.3% (2018)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 95.1% of population
Improved rural: 56.2% of population
Improved total: 78.6% of population
Unimproved urban: 4.9% of population
Unimproved rural: 43.8% of population
Unimproved total: 21.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 3.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.13 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 1.3 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
83.2% of population

rural: 27.7% of population

total: 59.7% of population

Unimproved urban:
16.8% of population

rural: 72.3% of population

total: 40.3% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Cameroon is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 11.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 4.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 2.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 1.56 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 7.3% (2020 est.)
Male: 13.2% (2020 est.)
Female: 1.4% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11% (2018/19)

Education expenditures: 3.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 77.1%
Male: 82.6%
Female: 71.6% (2018)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 12 years
Male: 13 years
Female: 11 years (2016)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 6.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 7.3%

Cameroon - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
Conventional short form: Cameroon
Local long form: Republique du Cameroun (French)/Republic of Cameroon (English)
Local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon
Former: Kamerun, French Cameroon, British Cameroon, Federal Republic of Cameroon, United Republic of Cameroon
Etymology: in the 15th century, Portuguese explorers named the area near the mouth of the Wouri River the Rio dos Camaroes (River of Prawns) after the abundant shrimp in the water; over time the designation became Cameroon in English; this is the only instance where a country is named after a crustacean

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Yaounde
Geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: founded as a German colonial settlement of Jaunde in 1888 and named after the local Yaunde (Ewondo) people

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region); Adamaoua, Centre, East (Est), Far North (Extreme-Nord), Littoral, North (Nord), North-West (Nord-Ouest), West (Ouest), South (Sud), South-West (Sud-Ouest)

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: State Unification Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)

History: several previous; latest effective 18 January 1996
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; amendment drafts require approval of at least one third of the membership in either house of Parliament; passage requires absolute majority vote of the Parliament membership; passage of drafts requested by the president for a second reading in Parliament requires two-thirds majority vote of its membership; the president can opt to submit drafts to a referendum, in which case passage requires a simple majority; constitutional articles on Cameroon’s unity and territorial integrity and its democratic principles cannot be amended; amended 2008

Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cameroon
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
Head of government: Prime Minister Joseph Dion NGUTE (since 4 January 2019)
Cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2,025); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Paul BIYA reelected president; percent of vote - Paul BIYA (CPDM) 71.3%, Maurice KAMTO (MRC) 14.2%, Cabral LIBII (Univers) 6.3%, other 8.2% (2018)

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats; 70 members indirectly elected by regional councils and 30 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members directly elected in 49 single and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

Senate - last held on 12 March 2023 (next to be held in 2,028)
National Assembly - last held on 9 February 2020

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - CDPM 100%; composition as of October 2023 - men 69, women 31, percent of women 31%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPDM 139, UNDP 7, SDF 5, PCRN 5, UDC 4, FSNC 3, MDR 2, Union of Socialist Movements 2; other 13; composition as of October 2023 - men 119, women 61, percent of women 33.9%; note - total Parliament percent of women 31.1%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Cameroon (consists of 9 titular and 6 surrogate judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and audit chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 11 members)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the advice of the Higher Judicial Council of Cameroon, a body chaired by the president and includes the minister of justice, selected magistrates, and representatives of the National Assembly; judge term NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president for renewable 6-year terms
Subordinate courts: Parliamentary Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases involving the president and prime minister); appellate and first instance courts; circuit and magistrates' courts

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy and Development [Garga Haman ADJI]
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]
Cameroon People's Party or CPP [Edith Kah WALLA]
Cameroon Renaissance Movement or MRC [Maurice KAMTO]
Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Hermine Patricia TOMAINO]
Cameroonian Party for National Reconciliation or PCRN [Cabral LIBII]
Front for the National Salvation of Cameroon or FSNC [Issa Tchiroma BAKARY]
Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Paulin DJOWRWE]
Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]
National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]
Progressive Movement or MP [Jean-Jacques EKINDI]
Social Democratic Front or SDF [Joshua OSIH]
Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Pierre Baleguel NKOT] 
Union of Socialist Movements [Pierre KWEMO] 


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Henri ETOUNDI ESSOMBA (since 27 June 2016)
In the us chancery: 2,349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 265-8,790
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 387-3,826
In the us email address and website: mail@cameroonembassyusa
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher J. LAMORA (since 21 March 2022)
From the us embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks, Yaoundé
From the us mailing address: 2,520 Yaounde Place, Washington, DC 20,521-2,520
From the us telephone: [237] 22,251-4,000/[237] 22,220-1500
From the us FAX: [237] 22,220-1500, Ext. 4,531
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Cameroon: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow, with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; the vertical tricolor recalls the flag of France; red symbolizes unity, yellow the sun, happiness, and the savannahs in the north, and green hope and the forests in the south; the star is referred to as the "star of unity"
Note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols: lion; national colors: green, red, yellow

National anthem
Name: "O Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancetres" (O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers)
Lyrics/music: Rene Djam AFAME, Samuel Minkio BAMBA, Moise Nyatte NKO'O [French], Benard Nsokika FONLON [English]/Rene Djam AFAME
Note: adopted 1957; Cameroon's anthem, also known as "Chant de Ralliement" (The Rallying Song), has been used unofficially since 1948 and officially adopted in 1957; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Dja Faunal Reserve; Sangha Trinational Forest

Cameroon - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: largest CEMAC economy with many natural resources; recent political instability and terrorism reducing economic output; systemic corruption; poor property rights enforcement; increasing poverty in northern regions

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$100.648 billion (2021 est.)
$97.103 billion (2020 est.)
$96.852 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
3.65% (2021 est.)
0.26% (2020 est.)
3.48% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 66.3% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 11.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.6% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -0.3% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 21.6% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -20.9% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 16.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 26.5% (2017 est.)
Services: 56.8% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: 3.22% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 11.81 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.87% (2021 est.)
3.84% (2020 est.)
3.64% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 6.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 7.3%

Population below poverty line: 37.5% (2014 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 46.6 (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 37.5%
Highest 10%: 35.4% (2001)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $6.118 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $7.405 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
36.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
32.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 10.87% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 2.5% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance:
-$1.795 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.512 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.695 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
2.27% (2021 est.)
2.44% (2020 est.)
2.45% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$1.795 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.512 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.695 billion (2019 est.)

$7.449 billion (2021 est.)
$6.124 billion (2020 est.)
$7.731 billion (2019 est.)

Note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.
Partners: China 17%, Netherlands 14%, Italy 9%, United Arab Emirates 8%, India 7%, United States 6%, Belgium 6%, Spain 5%, France 5% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, natural gas, cocoa beans, lumber, gold, bananas (2021)

$9.027 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$7.212 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$9.085 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: China 28%, Nigeria 15%, France 9%, Belgium 6% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, scrap vessels, rice, special purpose ships, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.459 billion (31 December 2018 est.)
$3.197 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt external:
$9.375 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.364 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar - 554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)
580.657 (2017 est.)

Cameroon - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 10 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 65.4% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 94.6% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 24.8% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 6,508,840,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 19 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 1.754 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 32.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 67.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 63,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 37,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 62,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 20,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 200 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 39,080 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 8,545 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 14,090 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 2,678,486,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 986.189 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 1,603,156,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 135.071 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 7.105 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 5.171 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 1.935 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 6.187 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Cameroon - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 929,007 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 22,442,414 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: government maintains tight control over broadcast media; state-owned Cameroon Radio Television (CRTV), broadcasting on both a TV and radio network, was the only officially recognized and fully licensed broadcaster until August 2007, when the government issued licenses to 2 private TV broadcasters and 1 private radio broadcaster; about 70 privately owned, unlicensed radio stations operate under “administrative tolerance,” meaning the stations could be subject to closure at any time (2019)

Internet country code: .cm

Internet users
Total: 12.42 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 46% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 722,579 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)

Cameroon - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1% of GDP (2021 est.)
1% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces: Cameroon Armed Forces (Forces Armees Camerounaises, FAC): Army (L'Armee de Terre), Navy (Marine Nationale Republique, MNR, includes naval infantry or fusiliers marin), Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC), Rapid Intervention Battalion (Bataillons d’Intervention Rapide or BIR), National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard (2023)
Note 1: the National Police and the National Gendarmerie are responsible for internal security; the Police report to the General Delegation of National Security, while the Gendarmerie reports to the Secretariat of State for Defense in charge of the Gendarmerie
Note 2: the Rapid Intervention Battalion (BIR), while part of the Ministry of Defense, maintains its own command and control structure that reports directly to the Presidency; the BIR is structured as a large brigade with up to 9 battalions, detachments, or groups consisting of infantry, airborne/airmobile, amphibious, armored reconnaissance, counterterrorism, and support elements, such as artillery and intelligence; the BIR receives better training, equipment, and pay than regular Army units.

Military service age and obligation: 18-23 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription; high school graduation required; service obligation 4 years (2023)

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Boko Haram; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - West Africa
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Cameroon - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 265,136 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 70,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: TJ

Airports: 33 (2021)
With paved runways: 11
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 22
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 11
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 22
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


Pipelines: 53 km gas, 5 km liquid petroleum gas, 1,107 km oil, 35 km water (2013)

Total: 987 km (2014)
Narrow gauge: 987 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge
Note: railway connections generally efficient but limited; rail lines connect major cities of Douala, Yaounde, Ngaoundere, and Garoua; passenger and freight service provided by CAMRAIL

Total: 77,589 km (2016)
Paved: 5,133 km (2016)
Unpaved: 72,456 km (2016)

Waterways: (2010) (major rivers in the south, such as the Wouri and the Sanaga, are largely non-navigable; in the north, the Benue, which connects through Nigeria to the Niger River, is navigable in the rainy season only to the port of Garoua)

Merchant marine
Total: 121 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 2, general cargo 45, oil tanker 33, other 41

Ports and terminals
Oil terminals: Limboh Terminal
River ports:
Douala (Wouri)

Garoua (Benoue)

Cameroon - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Cameroon-Central African Republic: Cameroon has deployed military troops to the border to counter intrusions from armed militias and bandits
Cameroon-Nigeria: Nigeria recognized Cameroon's sovereignty over the Bakassi Peninsula in 2006 and in completed the transfer of administration in 2013, although there are occasional, mostly local disputes in the area; the the majority of the land boundary was demarcated by 2019 with UN assistance, although there are few disagreements on the precise location of the boundary; the porous border is susceptible to crossings by the Boko Haram and Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - West Africa terrorist groups, both of which operate in Northern Nigeria 

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 353,701 (Central African Republic), 120,677 (Nigeria) (2023)
IDPs: 1.066 million (2023) (includes far north, northwest, and southwest)

Illicit drugs

Sightseeing Pass

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