Statistical information Canada 2023Canada

Map of Canada | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Canada - Introduction 2023
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada gained legislative independence from Britain in 1931 and formalized its constitutional independence from the UK when it passed the Canada Act in 1982. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.


Canada - Geography 2023
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Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map referenceNorth America

Area
Total: 9,984,670 km²
Land: 9,093,507 km²
Water: 891,163 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries
Total: 8,892 km
Border countries:
US 8,891 km (includes 2,475 km with Alaska); Denmark (Greenland) 1.3 km

 


Coastline: 202,080 km
Note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast

Elevation
Highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Lowest point: Atlantic/Pacific/Arctic Oceans 0 m
Mean elevation: 487 m

Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, uranium, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 6.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 4.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 1.6% (2018 est.)
Forest: 34.1% (2018 est.)
Other: 59.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,045 km² (2015)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Mackenzie - 4, 241 km; Yukon river source (shared with the US [m]) - 3,185 km; Saint Lawrence river mouth (shared with US) - 3,058 km; Nelson - 2,570 km; Columbia river source (shared with the US [m]) - 1,953 km; Churchill - 1,600 km; Fraser - 1,368 km; Ottawa - 1,271 km; Athabasca - 1,231 km; North Saskatchewan - 1,220 km; Liard - 1,115 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: Mississippi* (Gulf of Mexico) (3,202,185 km², Canada only 32,000 km²), Nelson (Hudson Bay) (1,093,141 km²), Saint Lawrence* (1,049,636 km², Canada only 839,200 km²)
Arctic Ocean drainage: Mackenzie (1,706,388 km²)
Pacific Ocean drainage: Yukon* (847,620 km², Canada only 823,800 km²), Columbia* (657,501 km², Canada only 103,000 km²)
note - watersheds shared with the US shown with *


Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 4.87 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 27.51 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 3.86 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 2.9 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

Geography
Note note 1: second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border
Note note 2: Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined


Canada - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia: 38,516,736 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.73% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 9.4% (2008 est.)
Below poverty line note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line

Nationality
Noun: Canadian(s)
Adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: Canadian 15.6%, English 14.7%, Scottish 12.1%, French 11%, Irish 12.1%, German 8.1%, Chinese 4.7%, Italian 4.3%, First Nations 1.7%, Indian 3.7%, Ukrainian 3.5%, Metis 1.5% (2021 est.)
Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin

Languages: English (official) 87.1%, French (official) 29.1%, Chinese languages 4.2%, Spanish 3.2%, Punjabi 2.6%, Arabic 2.4%, Tagalog 2.3%, Italian 1.5% (2022 est.)
Major-language samples:
Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

Gheos World Guide, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)


Religions: Christian 53.3%, Muslim 4.9%, Hindu 2.3%, Sikh 2.1%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 0.9%, Traditional (North American Indigenous) 0.2%, other religions and traditional spirituality 0.6%, none 34.6% (2021 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 15.65% (male 3,097,585/female 2,930,056)
15-64 years: 63.85% (male 12,367,172/female 12,224,077)
65 years and over: 20.5% (2023 est.) (male 3,630,580/female 4,267,266)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 52.1
Youth dependency ratio: 23.9
Elderly dependency ratio: 28.2
Potential support ratio: 3.6 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 42.4 years (2023 est.)
Male: 41.2 years
Female: 43.5 years

Population growth rate: 0.73% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 10.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Urbanization
Urban population: 81.9% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 6.372 million Toronto, 4.308 million Montreal, 2.657 million Vancouver, 1.640 million Calgary, 1.544 million Edmonton, 1.437 million OTTAWA (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 6.39 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 544.89 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 101.82 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 29.4 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 11 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 84 years (2023 est.)
Male: 81.7 years
Female: 86.4 years

Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 99.3% of population
Improved rural: 99.1% of population
Improved total: 99.2% of population
Unimproved urban: 0.7% of population
Unimproved rural: 0.9% of population
Unimproved total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 12.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 2.44 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 2.5 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.1% of population

rural: 98.9% of population

total: 99% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.9% of population

rural: 1.1% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 29.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 8 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 13% (2020 est.)
Male: 15.3% (2020 est.)
Female: 10.7% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 17 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 14% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 15%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 13.1%


Canada - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Canada
Etymology: the country name likely derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word "kanata" meaning village or settlement

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm; federal and state authorities and responsibilities regulated in constitution

Capital
Name: Ottawa
Geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Time zone note: Canada has six time zones
Etymology: the city lies on the south bank of the Ottawa River, from which it derives its name; the river name comes from the Algonquin word "adawe" meaning "to trade" and refers to the indigenous peoples who used the river as a trade highway

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution
History: consists of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982
Amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by the provincial legislative assemblies; there are 5 methods for passage though most require approval by both houses of Parliament, approval of at least two thirds of the provincial legislative assemblies and assent and formalization as a proclamation by the governor general in council; the most restrictive method is reserved for amendments affecting fundamental sections of the constitution, such as the office of the monarch or the governor general, and the constitutional amendment procedures, which require unanimous approval by both houses and by all the provincial assemblies, and assent of the governor general in council; amended 11 times, last in 2011 (Fair Representation Act, 2011)

Legal system: common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: minimum of 3 of last 5 years resident in Canada

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Mary SIMON (since 6 July 2021)
Head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)
Cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general
Note: the governor general position is largely ceremonial

Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75)
House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote with terms up to 4 years)

Elections:
Senate - appointed; latest appointments in July 2021
House of Commons - last held on 20 September 2021 (next to be held on or before 20 October 2,025)

Election results:
Senate - composition as of October 2023 - men 43, women 51, percent of women 54.3%

House of Commons - percent of vote by party - CPC 33.7%, Liberal Party 32.6%, NDP 17.8%, Bloc Quebecois 7.7%, Greens 2.3%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 159, CPC 119, NDP 25, Bloc Quebecois 32, Greens 2, independent 1; composition as of October 2023 - men 233, women 103; percent of women 30.6%; note - total Parliament percent of women 34.6%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court, which prior to that time, were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
Judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75
Subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; Courts Martial; provincial/territorial level: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; note - in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a provincial superior court, as well as a territorial court - was established to serve isolated settlements

Political parties and leaders:
Bloc Quebecois [Yves-Francois BLANCHET]
Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Pierre POILIEVRE]
Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]
Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
New Democratic Party or NDP [Jagmeet SINGH]
People's Party of Canada [Maxime BERNIER]


International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, USMCA, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsten HILLMAN (since 17 July 2020)
In the us chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,001
In the us telephone: [1] (844) 880-6,519
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 682-7,738
In the us email address and website:
ccs.scc@international.gc.ca

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David L. COHEN (since December 2021)
From the us embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
From the us mailing address: 5,480 Ottawa Place, Washington DC 20,521-5,480
From the us telephone: [1] (613) 238-5,335
From the us FAX: [1] (613) 241-7,845
From the us email address and website:
OttawaNIV@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Canada: two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol

National symbols: maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white

National anthem
Name: "O Canada"
Lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE
Note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the King" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 21 (10 cultural, 10 natural, 1 mixed) (2021)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


Canada - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: one of the world’s largest economies; leading global financier and macroeconomic partner; largest US trading partner; key timber and oil and gas industries; Canada sends over half its development aid to the World Bank; key “blue economy” developer

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.832 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.752 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.849 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.54% (2021 est.)
-5.23% (2020 est.)
1.88% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 57.8% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 23% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)
Industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)
Services: 70.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 4.74% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 21.017 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
7.51% (2021 est.)
9.46% (2020 est.)
5.66% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 14% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 15%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 13.1%

Population below poverty line: 9.4% (2008 est.)
Note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 33.3 (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $686.718 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $861.955 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
72.09% of GDP (2020 est.)
48.01% of GDP (2019 est.)
48.18% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Taxes and other revenues: 13.3% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
$826.662 million (2021 est.)
-$29.216 billion (2020 est.)
-$35.434 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
3.4% (2021 est.)
0.72% (2020 est.)
1.95% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$826.662 million (2021 est.)
-$29.216 billion (2020 est.)
-$35.434 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$611.146 billion (2021 est.)
$484.226 billion (2020 est.)
$561.63 billion (2019 est.)

Note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.
Partners: US 73% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, natural gas, gold, lumber (2021)

Imports:
$609.256 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$517.964 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$589.037 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: US 57%, China 11%, Mexico 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, refined petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$106.615 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$90.428 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$85.297 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$2,124,887,000,000 (2019 est.)
$1,949,796,000,000 (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar - 1.254 (2021 est.)
1.341 (2020 est.)
1.327 (2019 est.)
1.296 (2018 est.)
1.298 (2017 est.)



Canada - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 539.695 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 67.2 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 9.8 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 153.251 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 16.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 14.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 60.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 5,468,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 2,629,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 3.177 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 793,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 170.3 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 2.009 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 1.115 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 405,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 178,723,494,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 124,502,315,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 76,094,066,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 28,026,440,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 2,067,126,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 612.084 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 56.087 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 311.336 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 244.66 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 403.7 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Canada - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 11.312 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 32.723 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 86 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 2 public TV broadcasting networks, 1 in English and 1 in French, each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 1,119 licensed radio stations (2016)

Internet country code: .ca

Internet users
Total: 35.34 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 15,825,813 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2020 est.)


Canada - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.4% of GDP (2023)
1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.4% of GDP (2020)
1.3% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces: Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force; Department of Fisheries and Oceans: Coast Guard (2023)
Note 1: the CAF is comprised of both a Regular Force and a Reserve Force; the Reserve Force is part of all three services (Army, Navy, and Air Force) and is considered an integral component of the CAF; reservists are primarily part-time service positions; they may volunteer for full-time employment or deployment on operations; they typically serve one or more evenings a week and/or during weekends at locations close to home; the Reserve Force is comprised of the Primary Reserve, Canadian Rangers, Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service, and the Supplementary Reserve; the Canadian Rangers are part of the Army Reserve Force and provide a limited presence in Canada's northern, coastal, and isolated areas for sovereignty, public safety, and surveillance roles 
Note 2: the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or "Mounties") are under the Department of Public Safety; only Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador have provincial police forces, but the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary contracts policing in regions of the province to the RCMP; the RCMP and municipal forces provide coverage for other provinces and territories; some Indigenous reserves provide Indigenous policing; provincial and municipal police report to their respective provincial authorities

Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2023)
Note 1: Canada opened up all military occupations to women in 2001; women in 2023 comprised about 16% of the CAF
Note 2: the CAF offers waivers to foreign nationals applying for military service only in exceptional cases — to individuals on international military exchanges, for example, or to candidates who have specialized skills in high demand

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Hizballah
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Canada - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 51 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 879
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 89.38 million (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,434,070,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: C

Airports: 1,467 (2021)
With paved runways: 523
With paved runways civil airports: 123
With paved runways military airports: 8
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 3
With paved runways other airports: 389
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 944
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 523
Civil airports: 123
Military airports: 8
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 3
Other airports: 389
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 944
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 26 (2021)

Pipelines: 840,000 km oil and gas (2020)

Railways
Total: 49,422 km (2021) note: 129 km electrified (2021)
Standard gauge: 49,422 km (2021) 1.435-m gauge

Roadways
Total: 1,042,300 km (2011)
Paved: 415,600 km (2011) (includes 17,000 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)

Waterways: 636 km (2011) (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States)

Merchant marine
Total: 689 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 21, container ship 1, general cargo 65, oil tanker 15, other 587

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver
Oil terminals: Lower Lakes terminal
Container ports teus: Montreal (1,585,465), Vancouver (3,678,952) (2021)
Lng terminals import: Saint John
River and lake ports: Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence)
Dry bulk cargo ports:
Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),

Fraser River Port (Fraser) Hamilton (Lake Ontario)



Canada - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 22,400 (Venezuela) (refugees and migrants) (2020); 5,254 (Iran) (mid-year 2021)
Stateless persons: 4,323 (2022)

Illicit drugs: transnational criminal organizations trafficked cocaine, opium, methamphetamine, other synthetic drugs, and prescription drugs (some of which transited the United States) to Canada for domestic consumption; a source of synthetic drugs (including synthetic opioids), cannabis, and MDMA trafficked to the United States;  a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


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