Statistical information Croatia 2023Croatia

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Croatia in the World
Croatia in the World


Croatia - Introduction 2023
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Background: The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state consisting of six socialist republics under the strong hand of Marshal Josip Broz, aka TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before Yugoslav forces were cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013. In January 2023, Croatia further integrated into the EU by joining the Eurozone and the Schengen Area.

Croatia - Geography 2023
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 56,594 km²
Land: 55,974 km²
Water: 620 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 2,237 km
Border countries: (5) Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km; Hungary 348 km; Montenegro 19 km; Serbia 314 km; Slovenia 600 km

Coastline: 5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
Lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Mean elevation: 331 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 23.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 16% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 6.2% (2018 est.)
Forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)
Other: 41.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 171 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Dunav (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 460 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 700 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 80 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 105.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

Croatia - People 2023
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Distribution: more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated: 4,169,239 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: -0.47% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 18.3% (2018 est.)

Noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
Adjective: Croatian
Note: the French designation of "Croate" to Croatian mercenaries in the 17th century eventually became "Cravate" and later came to be applied to the soldiers' scarves - the cravat; Croatia celebrates Cravat Day every 18 October

Ethnic groups: Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)

Languages: Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Major-language samples:
Knjiga svjetskih činjenica, nužan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Croatian)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 13.98% (male 300,575/female 282,165)
15-64 years: 63.39% (male 1,319,878/female 1,322,953)
65 years and over: 22.63% (2023 est.) (male 391,632/female 552,036)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 56.5
Youth dependency ratio: 22.1
Elderly dependency ratio: 34.4
Potential support ratio: 2.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 44.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 42.9 years
Female: 46.7 years

Population growth rate: -0.47% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 8.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated

Urban population: 58.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 684,000 ZAGREB (capital) (2023)

Current issues: air pollution improving but still a concern in urban settings and in emissions arriving from neighboring countries; surface water pollution in the Danube River Basin
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 15.29 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 17.49 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 3.98 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 29 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 74.4 years
Female: 80.8 years

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: NA
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: NA
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 7.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.47 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 5.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.5% of population

rural: 98.4% of population

total: 99% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.5% of population

rural: 1.6% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: intermediate (2023)
Vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 24.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 9.64 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 4.75 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 3.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 36.9% (2020 est.)
Male: 37.6% (2020 est.)
Female: 36.1% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.4%
Male: 99.7%
Female: 99.2% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 16 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 23.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 21.8%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 26.3%

Croatia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
Conventional short form: Croatia
Local long form: Republika Hrvatska
Local short form: Hrvatska
Former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
Etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.

Government type: parliamentary republic

Name: Zagreb
Geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: the name seems to be related to "digging"; archeologists suggest that the original settlement was established beyond a water-filled hole or graba and that the name derives from this; za in Slavic means "beyond"; the overall meaning may be "beyond the trench (fault, channel, ditch)"

Administrative divisions: 20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska (Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia; notable earlier dates: ca. 925 (Kingdom of Croatia established); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)

National holiday: Statehood Day (National Day), 30 May (1990); note - marks the day in 1990 that the first modern multi-party Croatian parliament convened

History: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990
Amendments: proposed by at least one fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014

Legal system: civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Zoran MILANOVIC (since 18 February 2020)
Head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Tomo MEDVED (since 23 July 2020), Davor BOZINOVIC (since 12 July 2019), Oleg BUTKOVIC (since 15 July 2022), Branko BACIC (since 17 January 2023), Anja SIMPRAG (since 29 April 2022)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 December 2019 with a runoff on 5 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
Election results:
2019: Zoran MILANOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Zoran MILANOVIC (SDP) 52.7%, Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 47.3%

2015: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms
Elections: early election held on 5 July 2020 (next to be held by 2024)
Election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - HDZ-led coalition 37.3%, Restart coalition 24.9%, DPMS-led coalition 10.9%, MOST 7.4%, Green-Left coalition 7%, P-F-SSIP 4%, HNS-LD 1.3%, NS-R 1%, other 6.2%; number of seats by coalition/party - HDZ-led coalition 66, Restart coalition 41, DPMS-led coalition 16, MOST 8, Green-Left coalition 7, P-F-SSIP 3, HNS-LD 1, NS-R 1, national minorities 8; composition as of January 2021 - men 103, women 48, percent of women 31.8%
Note: seats by party as of March 2021 - HDZ 62, SDP 33, DP 9, Most 6, Croatian Sovereignists 4, We Can! 4, IDS 3, SDSS 3, HSS 2, HSLS 2, BZH 1, Center 1, FOKUS 1, GLAS 1, HDS 1, HSU 1, NL 1, Reformists 1, SSIP 1, RF 1, independent 12

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
Judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by the president of Croatia and elected by the Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by the National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
Subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside of the judicial system

Political parties and leaders:
Bloc for Croatia or BLOK or BZH [Zlatko HASANBEGOVIC]
The Bridge or Most [Bozo PETROV] (formerly the Bridge of Independent Lists)
Center or Centar [Ivica PULJAK] (formerly Pametno and Party with a First and Last Name or SSIP) 
Civic Liberal Alliance or GLAS [Ankar Mrak TARITAS]
Croatian Demochristian Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Branimir GLAVAS]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union-led coalition (includes HSLS, HDS, HDSSB)
Croatian Party of Pensioners or HSU [Veselko GABRICEVIC]
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS-LD [Mirko KOROTAJ, acting]
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Dario HREBAK]
Croatian Sovereignists or HS [Marijan PAVLICEK]
Focus on the Important or Focus [Davor NADI]
Green-Left coalition [collective leadership] (includes MOZEMO!, NL)
Homeland Movement or DP [Ivan PENAVA] (also known as Miroslav Škoro Homeland Movement or DPMS)
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Milorad PUPOVAC]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Dalibor PAUS]
New Left or NL [Ivana KEKIN]
People's Party - Reformists or NS-R [Radimir CACIC]
Restart Coalition (includes SDP, HSS, HSU, GLAS, IDS, NS-R)
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Peda GRBIN]
We Can! or Mozemo! [collective leadership]
Workers' Front or RF [collective leadership]

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Pjer SIMUNOVIC (since 8 September 2017)
In the us chancery: 2,343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 588-5,899
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 588-8,937
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Mark FLEMING (since May 2021)
From the us embassy: Ulica Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10,010 Zagreb
From the us mailing address: 5,080 Zagreb Place, Washington DC 20,521-5,080
From the us telephone: [385] (1) 661-2,200
From the us FAX: [385] (1) 661-8,933
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Croatia: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
Note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbols: red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem
Name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
Lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
Note: adopted in 1972 while still part of Yugoslavia; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 10 (8 cultural, 2 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]

Croatia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: tourism-based economy that was one of the hardest hit by COVID-19 economic disruptions; newest euro user since 2023, helping recover from a 6-year recession; public debt increases due to COVID-19 and stimulus packages; weak exports; continuing emigration; new liquefied natural gas import terminal

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$123.348 billion (2021 est.)
$109.088 billion (2020 est.)
$119.327 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
13.07% (2021 est.)
-8.58% (2020 est.)
3.42% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 51.1% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -48.8% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 26.2% (2017 est.)
Services: 70.1% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 9.11% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 1.742 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
8.68% (2021 est.)
7.51% (2020 est.)
6.62% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 23.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 21.8%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 26.3%

Population below poverty line: 18.3% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 28.9 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.7%
Highest 10%: 23% (2015 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $212.81 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $211.069 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: 0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
104.89% of GDP (2020 est.)
87.08% of GDP (2019 est.)
89.45% of GDP (2018 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 20.6% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0.26% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$2.082 billion (2021 est.)
-$184.775 million (2020 est.)
$1.7 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
2.55% (2021 est.)
0.15% (2020 est.)
0.77% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$2.082 billion (2021 est.)
-$184.775 million (2020 est.)
$1.7 billion (2019 est.)

$35.308 billion (2021 est.)
$24.007 billion (2020 est.)
$31.504 billion (2019 est.)

Note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.
Partners: Italy 13%, Germany 13%, Slovenia 10%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9%, Austria 6%, Serbia 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, electricity, electrical transformers (2021)

$36.331 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$27.954 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$31.793 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Italy 14%, Germany 14%, Slovenia 11%, Hungary 7%, Austria 6% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, cars, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, electricity (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$28.309 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$23.254 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$20.771 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$48.263 billion (2019 est.)
$51.176 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Note: Prior to 1 January 2023, Croatia used the kuna as its currency, and it is currently accepting both currencies until 15 January 2023. However, kuna users will receive change in euros, and the exchange rate has been fixed at 7.53450 kuna to 1 euro. Persons may exchange currencies at Croatian post offices until 30 June 2023, free-of-charge, and at any Croatian bank until 31 December 2023.

Croatia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 16,790,680,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 5.852 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 10.491 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 4.94 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 41% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 16.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 31.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 9.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 12,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 71,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 65,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 71 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 74,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 40,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 35,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 851.005 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 3,009,113,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 34.462 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Imports: 2,131,802,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 24.919 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 16.752 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1.674 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 9.4 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 5.678 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 89.733 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Croatia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 1,234,915 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 4,402,213 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; 29 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 4 national radio networks and 23 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and 117 local radio stations (2019)

Internet country code: .hr

Internet users
Total: 3.321 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 81% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 1,030,973 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2020 est.)

Croatia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.8% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
2% of GDP (2021)
1.7% of GDP (2020)
1.6% of GDP (2019)

Military and security forces: Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH): Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes Coast Guard), Air Force and Air Defense Forces; Military Police Force (2023)
Note: the Ministry of the Interior is responsible for internal security, including law enforcement (Croatia Police) and border security

Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2023)
Note: as of 2021, women comprised nearly 15% of the military's full-time personnel

Terrorist groups

Croatia - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 18
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,093,577 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 530,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 9A

Airports: 69 (2021)
With paved runways: 24
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 45
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 24
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 45
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)

Pipelines: 2,410 km gas, 610 km oil (2011)

Total: 2,617 km (2020) 980 km electrified

Total: 26,958 km (2015) (includes 1,416 km of expressways)

Waterways: 4,714 km (2022) Danube 2,859 km, Sava 562 km, Drava 505 km, Neretva 20 km, Bosut 151 km, Kupa 296 km, Mura 53 km, Korana 134 km, Lonja 134 km

Merchant marine
Total: 376 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 12, general cargo 33, oil tanker 14, other 317

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split
Oil terminals: Omisalj
Lng terminals import: Krk Island
River ports: Vukovar (Danube)

Croatia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Croatia joined the Schengen Zone on 1 January 2023

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 23,995 (Ukraine) (as of 1 December 2023)
Stateless persons: 2,889 (2022)
Note: 843,010 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-September 2023)

Illicit drugs: drug trafficking groups are major players in the procurement and transportation of of large quantities of cocaine destined for European markets

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