Statistical information Democratic Republic of the Congo 2023Democratic%20Republic%20of%20the%20Congo

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Democratic Republic of the Congo in the World
Democratic Republic of the Congo in the World

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Democratic Republic of the Congo - Introduction 2023
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Bantu, Sudanic, and other migrants from West and Northeastern Africa arrived in the Congo River Basin between 2000 B.C. and A.D. 500. The territory that is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo is extremely diverse, with more than 200 ethnic groups that trace their histories to many communal organizations and kingdoms. The Kingdom of Kongo, for example, ruled the area around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. Meanwhile, to the south and east, the Kingdoms of Luba and Lunda, respectively, were also notable political groupings in the territory and ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century. These kingdoms were invaded and splintered by European prospectors in the Congo Basin in the late 1800’s, sponsored by King LEOPOLD II of Belgium, and eventually were forced to grant Leopold the rights to the Congo territory to make it his private property. During this period, known as the Congo Free State, the king's private colonial military forced the local population to produce rubber. From 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese people died as a result of disease, inhumane treatment, and exploitation. International condemnation finally forced LEOPOLD to cede the land to the state of Belgium, creating the Belgian Congo.

The Republic of the Congo gained its independence from Belgium in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brute force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from conflict in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. KABILA renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president negotiated the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. Presidential, National Assembly, and provincial elections took place in 2006, with Joseph KABILA elected to office.

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Geography 2023
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Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 2,344,858 km²
Land: 2,267,048 km²
Water: 77,810 km²
Comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries
Total: 11,027 km
Border countries: (9) Angola 2,646 km; (of which 225 km; is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province) Burundi 236 km; Central African Republic 1,747 km; Republic of the Congo 1,775 km; Rwanda 221 km; South Sudan 714 km; Tanzania 479 km; Uganda 877 km; Zambia 2,332 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: since 2011, the DRC has had a Common Interest Zone agreement with Angola for the mutual development of off-shore resources

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 726 m

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber
Note 1: coltan, the industrial name for a columbite-tantalite mineral from which niobium and tantalum are extracted, is being linked to warfare in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; mining of coltan is mainly artisanal and small-scale and vulnerable to extortion and human trafficking; fighting over cassiterite deposits, a tin ore, is also a major cause of conflict in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; tantalum, tin, tungsten, and gold extracted from central Africa are considered "conflict minerals" and as such are subject to international monitoring
Note 2: the DROC is the World's leading producer of cobalt, accounting for as much as 70% of the World's supply; between 20-30% of this cobalt is produced in artisanal and small-scale mining operations which are vulnerable to extortion, human trafficking, and exploitative working conditions including child labor
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 3.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 8% (2018 est.)
Forest: 67.9% (2018 est.)
Other: 20.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km: Zaïre (Congo) river mouth (shared with Zambia [s], Angola, and Republic of Congo) - 4,700 km; Ubangi river mouth (shared with Central African Republic [s] and Republic of Congo) - 2,270 km note - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 km²), (Mediterranean Sea) Nile (3,254,853 km²)
Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 460 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 150 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 70 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 1.29 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley

Note note 1: second largest country in Africa (after Algeria) and largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa; straddles the equator; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands; the narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River is the DRC's only outlet to the South Atlantic Ocean
Note note 2: because of its speed, cataracts, rapids, and turbulence the Congo River, most of which flows through the DRC, has never been accurately measured along much of its length; nonetheless, it is conceded to be the deepest river in the world; estimates of its greatest depth vary between 220 and 250 meters

Democratic Republic of the Congo - People 2023
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Distribution: urban clusters are spread throughout the country, particularly in the northeast along the border with Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi; the largest city is the capital, Kinshasha, located in the west along the Congo River; the south is least densely populated as shown in this [link]: 111,859,928 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 3.13% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 63% (2014 est.)

Noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: more than 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest groups - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) - make up about 45% of the population

Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Major-language samples:
Buku oyo ya bosembo ya Mokili Mobimba Ezali na Makanisi ya Liboso Mpenza. (Lingala)

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Religions: Roman Catholic 29.9%, Protestant 26.7%, other Christian 36.5%, Kimbanguist 2.8%, Muslim 1.3%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 1.2%, none 1.3%, unspecified 0.2% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile: Despite a wealth of fertile soil, hydroelectric power potential, and mineral resources, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) struggles with many socioeconomic problems, including high infant and maternal mortality rates, malnutrition, poor vaccination coverage, lack of access to improved water sources and sanitation, and frequent and early fertility. Ongoing conflict, mismanagement of resources, and a lack of investment have resulted in food insecurity; almost 25% of children under the age of 5 were malnourished as of 2018. The overall coverage of basic public services - education, health, sanitation, and potable water - is very limited and piecemeal, with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at more than 5 children per woman and is likely to remain high because of the low use of contraception and the cultural preference for larger families.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 45.99% (male 25,902,046/female 25,543,395)
15-64 years: 51.52% (male 28,798,920/female 28,835,212)
65 years and over: 2.49% (2023 est.) (male 1,211,966/female 1,568,389)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 98
Youth dependency ratio: 92.1
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
Potential support ratio: 17.1 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 16.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 16.6 years
Female: 16.9 years

Population growth rate: 3.13% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 39.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: urban clusters are spread throughout the country, particularly in the northeast along the border with Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi; the largest city is the capital, Kinshasha, located in the west along the Congo River; the south is least densely populated as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 47.4% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 4.33% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 16.316 million KINSHASA (capital), 2.892 million Mbuji-Mayi, 2.812 million Lubumbashi, 1.664 million Kananga, 1.423 million Kisangani, 1.249 million Bukavu (2023)

Current issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation (forests endangered by fires set to clear the land for agricultural purposes; forests also used as a source of fuel); soil erosion; mining (diamonds, gold, coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors for electronic devices) causing environmental damage
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 31.58 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 2.02 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 61.24 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 19.9 years (2013/14 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 547 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 59.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 64.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 53.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 62.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 60.4 years
Female: 64.1 years

Total fertility rate: 5.56 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 28.1% (2017/18)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 88.8% of population
Improved rural: 34.7% of population
Improved total: 59.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 11.2% of population
Unimproved rural: 65.3% of population
Unimproved total: 40.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 4.1% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
53.4% of population

rural: 20.5% of population

total: 35.5% of population

Unimproved urban:
46.6% of population

rural: 79.5% of population

total: 64.5% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 6.7% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 0.56 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 12.8% (2020 est.)
Male: 22.7% (2020 est.)
Female: 2.9% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 23.1% (2017/18)

Education expenditures: 2.7% of GDP (2021 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
Total population: 80%
Male: 89.5%
Female: 70.8% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 11 years
Male: 10 years
Female: 9 years (2013)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 10.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 12%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.5%

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Conventional short form: DRC
Local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
Local short form: RDC
Former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
Abbreviation: DRC (or DROC)
Etymology: named for the Congo River, most of which lies within the DRC; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning "hunters"

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Name: Kinshasa
Geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Time zone note: the DRC has two time zones
Etymology: founded as a trading post in 1881 and named Leopoldville in honor of King LEOPOLD II of the Belgians, who controlled the Congo Free State, the vast central African territory that became the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1960; in 1966, Leopoldville was renamed Kinshasa, after a village of that name that once stood near the site

Administrative divisions: 26 provinces (provinces, singular - province); Bas-Uele (Lower Uele), Equateur, Haut-Katanga (Upper Katanga), Haut-Lomami (Upper Lomami), Haut-Uele (Upper Uele), Ituri, Kasai, Kasai-Central, Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Kinshasa, Kongo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Lomami, Lualaba, Mai-Ndombe, Maniema, Mongala, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Nord-Ubangi (North Ubangi), Sankuru, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu), Sud-Ubangi (South Ubangi), Tanganyika, Tshopo, Tshuapa

Dependent areas

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 June (1960)

History: several previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by either house of Parliament, or by public petition; agreement on the substance of a proposed bill requires absolute majority vote in both houses; passage requires a referendum only if both houses in joint meeting fail to achieve three-fifths majority vote; constitutional articles, including the form of government, universal suffrage, judicial independence, political pluralism, and personal freedoms, cannot be amended; amended 2011

Legal system: civil law system primarily based on Belgian law, but also customary and tribal law

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Felix TSHISEKEDI (since 24 January 2019)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Michel Sama LUKONDE (since 15 February 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Henri MOVA Sankanyi (since February 2018) Jean-Pierre BEMBBA (since 23 March 2023)
Cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 December 2023 (next to be held in December 2,028); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results:
2023: Felix TSHISEKEDI reelected president; percent of vote - Felix TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 73.3%, Moise KATUMBI (Ensemble) 18.8%, Martin FAYULU (ECIDE) 5.3%, other 2.6%

Felix TSHISEKEDI elected president; percent of vote - Felix TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 38.6%, Martin FAYULU (Lamuka coalition) 34.8%, Emmanuel Ramazani SHADARY (PPRD) 23.9%, other 2.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate (109 seats; 109 members to include 108 indirectly elected by provincial assemblies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and a former president, appointed for life)

National Assembly (500 seats; 439 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 61 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)  

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of 26 justices and organized into legislative and judiciary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
Subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates' courts; customary courts

Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]
Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]
Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC [NA]
Engagement for Citizenship and Development or ECIDE [Martin FAYULU]
Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]
Lamuka coalition [Martin FAYULU] (includes ECIDE, MLC, Together for Change, CNB, and Nouvel Elan)
Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]
Nouvel Elan [Adolphe MUZITO]
Our Congo or CNB ("Congo Na Biso") [Freddy MATUNGULU]
People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Henri MOVA Sakanyi]
Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]
Together for Change ("Ensemble") [Moise KATUMBI]
Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [NA]
Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE]
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Felix TSHISEKEDI]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LCBC (observer), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Marie-Hélène Mathey Boo LOWUMBA (since 7 June 2022)
In the us chancery: 1100 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 725, Washington DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-7,690
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 234-2,609
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Lucy TAMLYN (since 6 February 2023)
From the us embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa, Gombe
From the us mailing address: 2,220 Kinshasa Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,220
From the us telephone: [243] 081 556-0151
From the us FAX: [243] 81 556-0175
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Democratic%20Republic%20of%20the%20Congo: sky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner; blue represents peace and hope, red the blood of the country's martyrs, and yellow the country's wealth and prosperity; the star symbolizes unity and the brilliant future for the country

National symbols: leopard; national colors: sky blue, red, yellow

National anthem
Name: "Debout Congolaise" (Arise Congolese)
Lyrics/music: Joseph LUTUMBA/Simon-Pierre BOKA di Mpasi Londi
Note: adopted 1960; replaced when the country was known as Zaire; but readopted in 1997

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 5 (all natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Garamba National Park; Kahuzi-Biega National Park; Okapi Wildlife Reserve; Salonga National Park; Virunga National Park

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: very poor, large, natural resource-rich sub-Saharan country; possesses the world’s second largest rainforest; increasing Chinese extractive sector trade; massive decrease in government investments; increasing current account deficit and public debts

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$102.956 billion (2021 est.)
$96.945 billion (2020 est.)
$95.292 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
6.2% (2021 est.)
1.74% (2020 est.)
4.38% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 78.5% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 12.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 15.9% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 25.7% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -32.8% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 19.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 43.6% (2017 est.)
Services: 36.7% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: mining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: 7.78% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 33.382 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.43% (2021 est.)
5.27% (2020 est.)
4.45% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 10.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 12%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.5%

Population below poverty line: 63% (2014 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 42.1 (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.3%
Highest 10%: 34.7% (2006)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $5.419 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $6.382 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -0.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
18.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 11.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

From forest resources: 8.72% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$587.407 million (2021 est.)
-$1.052 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.693 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
41.5% (2017 est.)
18.2% (2016 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$587.407 million (2021 est.)
-$1.052 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.693 billion (2019 est.)

$22.354 billion (2021 est.)
$13.932 billion (2020 est.)
$15.173 billion (2019 est.)

Note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.
Partners: China 53%, United Arab Emirates 11%, Saudi Arabia 6%, South Korea 5% (2019)
Commodities: copper, cobalt, crude petroleum, tin, diamonds (2021)

$22.193 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$14.557 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$16.892 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 29%, South Africa 15%, Zambia 12%, Rwanda 5%, Belgium 5%, India 5% (2019)
Commodities: packaged medicines, refined petroleum, sulfuric acid, stone processing machines, delivery trucks (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.467 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$747.655 million (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.194 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$4.963 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.35 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Congolese francs (CDF) per US dollar - 1,989.391 (2021 est.)
1,851.122 (2020 est.)
1,647.76 (2019 est.)
1,622.524 (2018 est.)
1,464.418 (2017 est.)

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 82 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 20.7% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 43.7% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 1% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 7,181,700,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 248 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 385 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 2.919 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 99.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 22,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 17,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 21,300 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 180 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 21,140 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 368,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 368,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 991 million cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 2.653 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 44,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 2.608 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 1,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 1.371 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 0 (2021 est.) less than 1
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 47 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 49 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-owned TV broadcast station with near national coverage; more than a dozen privately owned TV stations - 2 with near national coverage; 2 state-owned radio stations are supplemented by more than 100 private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available

Internet country code: .cd

Internet users
Total: 21,102,720 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 23.2% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 31,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.03 (2020 est.)

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces: Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Land Forces, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC); Republican Guard (2023)
Note 1: the Congolese National Police are under the Ministry of Interior
Note 2: the Republican Guard is a division-size element consisting of approximately 5 regiments; it is regarded as the country’s best equipped and trained military unit and is under the direct control of the president

Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 18-45 years of age for compulsory military service for men; it is unclear how much conscription is used (2023)
Note: in eastern Congo, fighters from armed groups, and in some cases government security forces, have been accused of forced recruitment of child soldiers

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - Democratic Republic of the Congo (ISIS-DRC)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Democratic Republic of the Congo - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 13
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 932,043 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 890,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 9Q

Airports: 198 (2021)
With paved runways: 26
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 172
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 26
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 172
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)

Pipelines: 62 km gas, 77 km oil, 756 km refined products (2013)

Total: 4,007 km (2014)
Narrow gauge:
3,882 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified)

125 1.000-mm gauge

Total: 152,373 km (2015)
Paved: 3,047 km (2015)
Unpaved: 149,326 km (2015)
Urban: 7,400 km (2015)
Non-urban: 144,973 km

Waterways: 15,000 km (2011) (including the Congo River, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes)

Merchant marine
Total: 23 (2022)
By type: general cargo 5, oil tanker 2, other 16

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Banana
River or lake ports: Boma, Bumba, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka (Congo); Kindu (Lualaba); Bukavu, Goma (Lake Kivu); Kalemie (Lake Tanganyika)

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Republic of the Congo: the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Uganda: Uganda rejects the DRC claim to Margherita Peak in the Rwenzori mountains and considers it a boundary divide; there is tension and violence on Lake Albert over prospective oil reserves at the mouth of the Semliki River; the Ugandan-origin Allied Democratic Forces (ADF; aka Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham in the DRC) operates on both sides of the border

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Zambia: boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Angola: DRC has accused Angola of shifting monuments

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Rwanda: the DRC has accused Rwanda of backing the armed separatist group March 23 Movement (aka M23 or Congolese Revolutionary Army)
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Burundi: multiple armed groups originating from Burundi operate in the DRC

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 211,963 (Central African Republic), 208,328 (Rwanda), 53,194 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 46,272 (Burundi) (2023)
IDPs: 6.38 million (fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; conflict in Kasai region since 2016) (2023)

Illicit drugs: country of origin of methamphetamine destined for overseas markets;


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