Statistical information Ecuador 2023Ecuador

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Ecuador in the World
Ecuador in the World

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Ecuador - Introduction 2023
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Background: What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. Guillermo LASSO was elected president in April 2021 becoming the country's first center-right president in nearly two decades when he took office the following month.


Ecuador - Geography 2023
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Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map referenceSouth America

Area
Total: 283,561 km²
Land: 276,841 km²
Water: 6,720 km²
Note: includes Galapagos Islands
Comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries
Total: 2,237 km
Border countries: (2) Colombia 708 km; Peru 1529 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Note: Ecuador has declared its right to extend its continental shelf to 350 nm measured from the baselines of the Galapagos Archipelago

Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation
Highest point: Chimborazo 6,267
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 1,117 m
Note: because the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet farthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea level

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 29.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 4.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 5.6% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 19.4% (2018 est.)
Forest: 38.9% (2018 est.)
Other: 31.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 km² (2020)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon (6,145,186 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 1.29 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 550 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 8.8 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 442.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts

Geography
Note note 1: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Note note 2: genetic research indicates that the cherry-sized tomato originated in Ecuador without any human domestication; later domestication in Mexico transformed the plant into the large modern tomato; archeological research indicates that the cacao tree, whose seeds are used to make chocolate and which was long thought to have originated in Mesoamerica, was first domesticated in the upper Amazon region of northwest South America - present-day Ecuador - about 3,300 B.C.


Ecuador - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: nearly half of the population is concentrated in the interior in the Andean intermontane basins and valleys, with large concentrations also found along the western coastal strip; the rainforests of the east remain sparsely populated: 17,483,326 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.99% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 25% (2019 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Ecuadorian(s)
Adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Amerindian 7%, White 6.1%, Afroecuadorian 4.3%, Mulatto 1.9%, Black 1%, other 0.4% (2010 est.)

Languages: Spanish (Castilian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%; note - (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)
Major-language samples:
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Roman Catholic 68.8%, Evangelical 15.4%, Adventist 1.2%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, other 1.3%, agnostic or atheist 1.4%, none 10.1%, don't know/no response 1% (2020 est.)
Note: data represent persons at least 16 years of age from five Ecuadoran cities

Demographic profile: Ecuador’s high poverty and income inequality most affect indigenous, mixed race, and rural populations. The government has increased its social spending to ameliorate these problems, but critics question the efficiency and implementation of its national development plan. Nevertheless, the conditional cash transfer program, which requires participants’ children to attend school and have medical check-ups, has helped improve educational attainment and health care among poor children. Ecuador’s total fertility rate - the average number of children born per woman - is just below replacement level as of 2023, but its population is continuing to grow.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 24.49% (male 2,183,293/female 2,098,856)
15-64 years: 66.44% (male 5,739,156/female 5,876,090)
65 years and over: 9.07% (2023 est.) (male 745,170/female 840,761)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 50.9
Youth dependency ratio: 39.4
Elderly dependency ratio: 11.5
Potential support ratio: 8.7 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 27.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 26.8 years
Female: 28.7 years

Population growth rate: 0.99% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: nearly half of the population is concentrated in the interior in the Andean intermontane basins and valleys, with large concentrations also found along the western coastal strip; the rainforests of the east remain sparsely populated

Urbanization
Urban population: 64.8% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.62% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 3.142 million Guayaquil, 1.957 million QUITO (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 16.55 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 41.15 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 23.51 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio: 66 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 11.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.9 years (2023 est.)
Male: 69.7 years
Female: 80.4 years

Total fertility rate: 2.24 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 77.9% (2018/19)
Note: percent of women aged 15-50

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 87.1% of population
Improved total: 95.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 12.9% of population
Unimproved total: 4.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 8.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 2.22 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density: 1.4 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: 96.9% of population

total: 98.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: 3.1% of population

total: 1.1% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 19.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 3.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 2.32 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.61 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 11.3% (2020 est.)
Male: 18.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 4.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.2% (2018/19)

Education expenditures: 3.7% of GDP (2021 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 94.5%
Male: 94.9%
Female: 94% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 14.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 11.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 18.8%


Ecuador - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
Conventional short form: Ecuador
Local long form: República del Ecuador
Local short form: Ecuador
Etymology: the country's position on the globe, straddling the Equator, accounts for its Spanish name

Government type: presidential republic

Capital
Name: Quito
Geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Time zone note: Ecuador has two time zones, including the Galapagos Islands (UTC-6)
Etymology: named after the Quitu, a Pre-Columbian indigenous people credited with founding the city; the name is also a combination of two Tsafiki words: quitso (meaning "center" or "half") + to or tu ("the world"); the combination roughly translates as "center of the world" and reflects the fact that native peoples recognized that at the two annual equinoxes, the overhead sun in that area (only about 20 km (12 mi) north of the equator) did not display any shade and thus must be in the middle of the world

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora Chinchipe

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)

Constitution
History: many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic through a referendum, by public petition of at least 1% of registered voters, or by agreement of at least one-third membership of the National Assembly; passage requires two separate readings a year apart and approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, and approval by absolute majority in a referendum; amendments such as changes to the structure of the state, constraints on personal rights and guarantees, or constitutional amendment procedures are not allowed; amended 2011, 2015, 2018

Legal system: civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage: 18-65 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Daniel NOBOA Azin (since 23 November 2023); Vice President Verónica ABAD Rojas (since 23 November 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Daniel NOBOA Azin (since 23 November 2023); Vice President Verónica ABAD Rojas (since 23 November 2023)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 August 2023 with a runoff on 15 October 2023 (next to be held on 28 February 2,025); note - on 18 May 2023, Ecuador’s National Electoral Council announced that the legislative and presidential elections—originally scheduled for February 2,025—would be held on 20 August 2023 (with a runoff election held 15 October 2023) after President Guillermo LASSO dissolved the National Assembly by decree on 17 May 2023; though eligible for a second term, LASSO announced that he would not run in the 2023 election; President Daniel NOBOA Azin will serve out the remainder of the current presidential term (2021-2,025)

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by open-list proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies for Ecuadorians living abroad by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - all Assembly members have alternates from the same party who cast votes when a primary member is absent, resigns, or is removed from office
Elections: last held on 20 August 2023 (next to be held on 28 February 2,025); note - on 18 May 2023, Ecuador’s National Electoral Council announced that the legislative and presidential elections—originally scheduled for February 2,025—would be held on 20 August 2023 after President Guillermo LASSO dissolved the National Assembly by decree on 17 May 2023; a return to a regular election cycle will occur in February 2,025
Election results: percent of vote by party - MRC 39.7%, Construye 20.4%, ADN 14.6%, PSC 11.9%, Actuemos 4.5%, PSP 3.2%, other 5.7%; seats by party - NA; note - defections by National Assembly members are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch
Highest courts: National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges, including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of the court president and 8 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: candidates for the National Court of Justice evaluated and appointed justices by the Judicial Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; justices elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; candidates for the Constitutional Court evaluated and appointed judges by a 6-member independent body of law professionals; judges appointed for 4-year renewable terms
Subordinate courts: provincial courts (one for each province except Galapagos); fiscal, criminal, and administrative tribunals; Election Dispute Settlement Courts; cantonal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Actuemos Ecuador or Actuemos
Avanza Party or AVANZA [Javier ORTI Torres]
Central Democratic Movement or CD [Jimmy JAIRALA]
Citizen Revolution Movement or MRC or RC5 [Marcela AGUIÑAGA]
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guido CHIRIBOGA]
Democratic Left or ID [Enrique CHÁVEZ]
For A Country Without Fear (Por Un País Sin Miedo)
Movimiento Construye or Construye
National Democratic Action (Acción Democrática Nacional) or ADN [Daniel NOBOA]
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Guillermo CHURUCHUMBI]
Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Alfredo SERRANO]
Socialist Party [Gustavo VALLEJO]
Society United for More Action or SUMA [Guillermo CELI]


International organization participation: CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne Leila Juez De A-BAKI (since 6 February 2020)
In the us chancery: 2,535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-7,200
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 333-2,893
In the us email address and website:
embassy@ecuador.org

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. FITZPATRICK (since 3 July 2019)
From the us embassy: E12-170 Avenida Avigiras y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
From the us mailing address: 3,420 Quito Place, Washington DC 20,521-3,420
From the us telephone: [593] (2) 398-5,000
From the us email address and website:
ACSQuito@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Ecuador: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice
Note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbols: Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red

National anthem
Name: "Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You, Our Homeland)
Lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE
Note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 5 (3 cultural, 2 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


Ecuador - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: highly informal South American economy; USD currency user; major banana exporter; hard hit by COVID-19; macroeconomic fragility from oil dependency; successful debt restructuring; China funding budget deficits; social unrest hampering economic activity

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$189.88 billion (2021 est.)
$182.165 billion (2020 est.)
$197.549 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.24% (2021 est.)
-7.79% (2020 est.)
0.01% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 60.7% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 14.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 24.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 20.8% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -21.3% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 6.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 32.9% (2017 est.)
Services: 60.4% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate: 0.49% (2021 est.)
Note: excludes oil refining

Labor force: 8.528 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
6.43% (2021 est.)
6.11% (2020 est.)
3.81% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 14.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 11.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 18.8%

Population below poverty line: 25% (2019 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 47.3 (2020 est.)
Coefficient distribution of family income note: data are for urban households only

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.4%
Highest 10%: 35.4% (2012 est.)
Note: data are for urban households only

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $35.914 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $39.319 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -4.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
45.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.2% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 12.54% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.27% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$2.952 billion (2021 est.)
$2.69 billion (2020 est.)
-$59.36 million (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
0.13% (2021 est.)
-0.34% (2020 est.)
0.27% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$2.952 billion (2021 est.)
$2.69 billion (2020 est.)
-$59.36 million (2019 est.)


Exports:
$29.325 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$22.401 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$26.12 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 30%, China 13%, Panama 8%, Chile 7% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, shrimp, bananas, refined petroleum, tuna (2021)

Imports:
$28.567 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$19.877 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$25.89 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 22%, China 18%, Colombia 9%, Panama 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, coal tar oil, cars, packaged medicines, soybean products (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$7.912 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$7.137 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$2.939 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$50.667 billion (2019 est.)
$43.224 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
1 (2021 est.)
1 (2020 est.)
1 (2019 est.)
1 (2018 est.)
1 (2017 est.)

the US dollar became Ecuador's currency in 2001



Ecuador - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 26,353,430,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 1.826 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 6 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 9.354 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 21% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 77.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 478,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 259,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 349,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 8.273 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 137,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 25,870 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 153,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 342.407 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 342.407 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 10.902 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 36.051 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 45,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 35.329 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 677,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 42.564 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Ecuador - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 1,644,238 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 16,789,600 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 94 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: the Communication Council, an official entity, carried out a media registry in Ecuador in December 2020. It registered 956 media outlets, 89% are private, 5% are public and 6% belong to small communities. The government controls most of the 44 public media, this includes national media and multiple local radio stations. In addition, of the 956 registered media, 58% are radio and 18% print. Two provinces have the largest number of media outlets: Guayas has 172 media outlets and Pichincha has 130 media outlets. (2020) so also sent to the National Assembly a new regulation proposal that is still under discussion.

Internet country code: .ec

Internet users
Total: 13.68 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population:
76% (2021 est.)

according to 2021 statistics from Ecuador's Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Society, 50% of homes do not have access to fixed internet


Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 2,371,297 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2020 est.)


Ecuador - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2022 est.)
2% of GDP (2021 est.)
2.3% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.2% of GDP (2019)
2.4% of GDP (2018)


Military and security forces: Ecuadorian Armed Forces: the Ecuadorian Army (Ejército Ecuatoriano), Ecuadorian Navy (Armada del Ecuador, Fuerza Naval del Ecuador, FNE; includes naval infantry, naval aviation, coast guard), Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2023)
Note: the National Police of Ecuador (Policía Nacional del Ecuador) is under the Ministry of Government/Interior

Military service age and obligation: 18-22 years of age for selective conscript military service for men, although conscription was suspended in 2008; 18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 12-month service obligation (2023)
Note: in 2022, women made up an estimated 3-4% of the military

Terrorist groups


Ecuador - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 7 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,365,261 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 64.2 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: HC

Airports: 432 (2021)
With paved runways: 104
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 328
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 104
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 328
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 2 (2021)

Pipelines: 485 km extra heavy crude, 123 km gas, 2,131 km oil, 1,526 km refined products (2017)

Railways
Total: 965 km (2022)
Narrow gauge: 965 km (2022) 1.067-m gauge
Note: passenger service limited to certain sections of track, mostly for tourist trains

Roadways
Total: 43,950 km (2022)
Paved: 8,895 km (2022)
Unpaved: 35,055 km (2022)

Waterways: 1,500 km (2012) (most inaccessible)

Merchant marine
Total: 147 (2022)
By type: container ship 1, general cargo 8, oil tanker 28, other 110

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Esmeraldas, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
Container ports teus: Guayaquil (2,163,151) (2021)
River ports: Guayaquil (Guayas)


Ecuador - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 65,854 (Colombia) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2021); 513,900 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2022)

Illicit drugs: Ecuador is a major transit country for cocaine destined for the United States and other international destinations; criminal groups traffic cocaine precursor chemicals for drug gangs; not a major drug producing country; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


Undercover Tourist


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