Statistical information Ethiopia 2023Ethiopia

Map of Ethiopia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Ethiopia in the World
Ethiopia in the World

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Ethiopia - Introduction 2023
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Background:
The area that is modern-day Ethiopia is rich in cultural and religious diversity with more than 80 ethnic groups. The oldest hominid yet found comes from Ethiopia, and Ethiopia was the second country to officially adopt Christianity in the 4th century A.D. A series of monarchies ruled the area that is now Ethiopia from 980 B.C. to 1855, when the Amhara kingdoms of northern Ethiopia united in an empire under Tewodros II. Many Ethiopians still speak reverently about the Battle of Adwa in 1896, when they defeated Italian forces and thus retained their freedom from colonial rule.

Emperor Haile SELASSIE became an internationally renowned figure in 1935, when he unsuccessfully appealed to the League of Nations to prevent Italy from occupying Ethiopia from 1936 to 1941. SELASSIE survived an attempted coup in 1960, annexed modern-day Eritrea in 1962, and played a leading role in establishing the Organization of African Unity in 1963. However, in 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed him and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, drought, and massive displacement, the Derg regime was toppled in 1991 by a coalition of opposing forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). The EPRDF became an ethno-federalist political coalition that ruled Ethiopia from 1991 until its dissolution in 2019. Ethiopia adopted its constitution in 1994 and held its first multiparty elections in 1995.

A two-and-a-half-year border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. Ethiopia subsequently rejected the 2007 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission demarcation. This intransigence resulted in more than a decade of a tense “no peace, no war” stalemate between the two countries. In 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades. Following a wave of popular dissent and anti-government protest that began in 2015, HAILEMARIAM resigned in 2018 and ABIY Ahmed Ali took office the same year as Ethiopia's first ethnic Oromo prime minister. In 2018, ABIY promoted a rapprochement between Ethiopia and Eritrea that was marked with a peace agreement and a reopening of their shared border. In November 2019, Ethiopia's nearly 30-year ethnic-based ruling coalition, the EPRDF, merged into a single unity party called the Prosperity Party; however, the lead coalition party, the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), declined to join. In November 2020, a military conflict erupted between forces aligned with the TPLF and the Ethiopian military. The conflict - which was marked by atrocities committed by all parties - ended in November 2022 with a cessation of hostilities agreement between the Tigrayan leaders and the Ethiopian Government. However, Ethiopia continues to experience ethnic-based violence as other groups - including the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) and Amhara militias - seek concessions from the Ethiopian Government.



Ethiopia - Geography 2023
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Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 1,104,300 km²
Land: 1,096,570 km²
Water: 7,730 km²
Note: area numbers are approximate since a large portion of the Ethiopia-Somalia border is undefined
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 5,925 km
Border countries: (6) Djibouti 342 km; Eritrea 1,033 km; Kenya 867 km; Somalia 1,640 km; South Sudan 1,299 km; Sudan 744 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley

Elevation
Highest point: Ras Dejen 4,550 m
Lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
Mean elevation: 1,330 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 36.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 15.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 20% (2018 est.)
Forest: 12.2% (2018 est.)
Other: 51.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,813 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Blue Nile river source (shared with Sudan [m]) - 1,600 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Mediterranean Sea) Nile (3,254,853 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 810 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 9.69 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 122 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Geography
Note note 1: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia
Note note 2: three major crops may have originated in Ethiopia: coffee (almost certainly), grain sorghum, and castor bean


Ethiopia - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: highest density is found in the highlands of the north and middle areas of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city of Addis Ababa; the far east and southeast are sparsely populated as shown in this [link]: 116,462,712 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 2.4% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 23.5% (2015 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Ethiopian(s)
Adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 35.8%, Amhara 24.1%, Somali 7.2%, Tigray 5.7%, Sidama 4.1%, Guragie 2.6%, Welaita 2.3%, Afar 2.2%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 13.5% (2022 est.)

Languages: Oromo (official working language of Oromia Regional State) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of Somali Regional State) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of Tigray Regional State) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of Afar Regional State) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
Major-language samples:
Kitaaba Addunyaa Waan Qabataamaatiif - Kan Madda Odeeffannoo bu’uraawaatiif baay’ee barbaachisaa ta’e. (Oromo)

የአለም እውነታ መጽሐፍ፣ ለመሠረታዊ መረጃ እጅግ አስፈላጊ የሆነ ምንጭ። (Amharic)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Ethiopian Orthodox 43.8%, Muslim 31.3%, Protestant 22.8%, Catholic 0.7%, traditional 0.6%, other 0.8% (2016 est.)

Demographic profile: Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country - nearly 80% of the population lives in rural areas - that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 38.91% (male 22,821,026/female 22,498,331)
15-64 years: 57.55% (male 33,345,764/female 33,672,933)
65 years and over: 3.54% (2023 est.) (male 1,887,831/female 2,236,827)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 75.7
Youth dependency ratio: 70.2
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
Potential support ratio: 18.1 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 20.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 20 years
Female: 20.5 years

Population growth rate: 2.4% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 30.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: highest density is found in the highlands of the north and middle areas of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city of Addis Ababa; the far east and southeast are sparsely populated as shown in this [link]

Urbanization
Urban population: 23.2% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 5.461 million ADDIS ABABA (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; loss of biodiversity; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management; industrial pollution and pesticides contribute to air, water, and soil pollution
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 21.8 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 14.87 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 114.21 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 19.3 years (2019 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 267 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 33.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 38.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 64.9 years
Female: 69.4 years

Total fertility rate: 3.92 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 37.7% (2020)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 98.5% of population
Improved rural: 70.2% of population
Improved total: 76.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 1.5% of population
Unimproved rural: 29.8% of population
Unimproved total: 23.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 3.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.11 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 0.3 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
52.5% of population

rural: 8.1% of population

total: 17.7% of population

Unimproved urban:
47.5% of population

rural: 91.9% of population

total: 82.3% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 4.5% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 1.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.92 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 5.1% (2020 est.)
Male: 8.8% (2020 est.)
Female: 1.3% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 21.1% (2019)

Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2019 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 51.8%
Male: 57.2%
Female: 44.4% (2017)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 9 years
Male: 8 years
Female: 8 years (2012)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 5.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 4.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 7.2%


Ethiopia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Conventional short form: Ethiopia
Local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
Local short form: Ityop'iya
Former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
Abbreviation: FDRE
Etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word "Aethiopia," which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region

Government type: federal parliamentary republic

Capital
Name: Addis Ababa
Geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the name in Amharic means "new flower" and was bestowed on the city in 1889, three years after its founding

Administrative divisions: 12 ethnically based regional states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 chartered cities* (astedader akabibiwach, singular - astedader akabibi); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela), Hareri Hizb (Harari), Oromia, Sidama, Somali, Tigray, YeDebub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples), YeDebub M'irab Ityop'iya Hizboch (Southwest Ethiopia Peoples), Southern Ethiopia Peoples

Dependent areas

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)

National holiday: Derg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995
Amendments: proposals submitted for discussion require two-thirds majority approval in either house of Parliament or majority approval of one-third of the State Councils; passage of amendments other than constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms and the initiation and amendment of the constitution requires two-thirds majority vote in a joint session of Parliament and majority vote by two thirds of the State Councils; passage of amendments affecting rights and freedoms and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote in each house of Parliament and majority vote by all the State Councils

Legal system: civil law system

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President SAHLE-WORK Zewde (since 25 October 2018)
Head of government: Prime Minister ABIY Ahmed Ali (since April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen (since 29 November 2012)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election held on 21 June 2021 and 30 September 2021 (the scheduled 29 August 2020 election was postponed by Prime Minister ABIY due to the COVID-19 pandemic); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
Election results:

2021
: SAHLE-WORK Zewde elected president during joint session of Parliament, vote - 659 (unanimous); ABIY confirmed Prime Minister by House of Peoples' Representatives (4 October 2021)

2018: SAHLE-WORK Zewde elected president during joint session of Parliament, vote - 659 (unanimous); note - snap election held on 25 October 2018 due to resignation of President MULATA Teshome

Note: SAHLE-WORK Zewde is the first female elected head of state in Ethiopia; she is currently the only female president in Africa.

Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral Parliament consists of:
House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats maximum; 144 seats current; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms)
House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats maximum; 470 seats current; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms)

Elections:
House of Federation - last held 4 October 2021 (next expected in October 2,026)
House of People's Representatives - last held in two parts on 21 June 2021 and 30 September 2021 (next expected in June 2,026)

Election results:
House of Federation - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - NA; composition - men 100, women 44, percent of women 30.6%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - Prosperity Party 454, NAMA 5, EZEMA 4, Gedeo People's Democratic organization 2, Kucha People Democratic Party 1, independent 4; composition - men 275, women 195, percent of women 41.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 38.9%

Notes: House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation; percent of vote percentages are calculated on the number of members actually seated versus on the constitutional maximums

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
Judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
Subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts

Political parties and leaders:
House of People's Representatives:
Ethiopian Citizens for Social Justice and Democracy or EZEMA [BERHANU Nega]  
Gedeo People's Democratic Party
Independent [n/a]
Kucha People Democratic Party 
National Movement of Amhara or NAMA [BELETE Molla]
Prosperity Party or PP [ABIY Ahmed Ali]

Note: Ethiopia has over fifty national-level and regional-level political parties. The ruling party, the Prosperity Party, was created by Prime Minister ABIY in November 2019 from member parties of the former Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), which included the Amhara Democratic Party (ADP), Oromo Democratic Party (ODP), Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement (SEPDM), plus other EPRDF-allied parties such as the Afar National Democratic Party (ANDP), Benishangul Gumuz People’s Democratic Party (BGPDP), Gambella People’s Democratic Movement (GPDM), Somali People’s Democratic Party (SPDP), and the Harari National League (HNL). Once the Prosperity Party was created, the various ethnically-based parties that comprised or were affiliated with the EPRDF were subsequently disbanded; in January 2021, the Ethiopian electoral board de-registered the Tigray People’s Liberation Front or TPLF; national level parties are qualified to register candidates in multiple regions across Ethiopia; regional parties can register candidates for both national and regional parliaments, but only in one region of Ethiopia

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, ATMIS, AU, BRICS, COMESA, EITI, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (accession candidate)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador SELESHI Bekele Awulachew (since 7 June 2022)
In the us chancery: 3,506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
In the us email address and website:
ethiopia@ethiopianembassy.org

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON (since 25 February 2022)
From the us embassy: Entoto Street, P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
From the us mailing address: 2,030 Addis Ababa Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,030
From the us telephone: [251] 111-30-60-00
From the us FAX: [251] 111-24-24-01
From the us email address and website:
AddisACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Ethiopia: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
Note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996

National symbols: Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red

National anthem
Name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
Lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
Note: adopted 1992

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 11 (9 cultural, 2 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


Ethiopia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: growing Horn of Africa construction- and services-based economy; port access via Djibouti and Eritrea; widespread but declining poverty; COVID-19, locust invasion, and Tigray crisis disruptions; public investment increases; second largest African labor force

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$278.945 billion (2021 est.)
$264.059 billion (2020 est.)
$248.972 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
5.64% (2021 est.)
6.06% (2020 est.)
8.36% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 69.6% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 10% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 43.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 8.1% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -31.2% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 34.8% (2017 est.)
Industry: 21.6% (2017 est.)
Services: 43.6% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: 7.26% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 56.664 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.69% (2021 est.)
3.24% (2020 est.)
2.33% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 5.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 4.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 7.2%

Population below poverty line: 23.5% (2015 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 35 (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 4.1%
Highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $11.308 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $13.979 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
31.45% of GDP (2019 est.)
32.53% of GDP (2018 est.)
30.1% of GDP (2017 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 6.2% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 5.81% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

Current account balance:
-$4.507 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.719 billion (2020 est.)
-$5.025 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
26.84% (2021 est.)
20.36% (2020 est.)
15.81% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$4.507 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.719 billion (2020 est.)
-$5.025 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$9.496 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$7.715 billion (2020 est.)
$7.588 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: China 17%, United States 16%, United Arab Emirates 8%, Saudi Arabia 6%, South Korea 5%, Germany 5% (2019)
Commodities: coffee, gold, sesame seeds, vegetables, cut flowers, aircraft parts (2021)

Imports:
$20.859 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$17.17 billion (2020 est.)
$19.227 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: China 27%, India 9%, United Arab Emirates 9%, France 9%, United Kingdom 7% (2019)
Commodities: aircraft, gas turbines, packaged medicines, electric filament, cars (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.046 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$2.993 billion (31 December 2019 est.)
$3.987 billion (31 December 2018 est.)


Debt external:
$27.27 billion (2019 est.)
$26.269 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
birr (ETB) per US dollar - 43.734 (2021 est.)
34.927 (2020 est.)
29.07 (2019 est.)
27.429 (2018 est.)
23.866 (2017 est.)



Ethiopia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 59 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 54.1% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 94.3% (2019)
Electrification-rural areas: 42.7% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 9,778,100,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 1 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 4.856 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 3.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 95.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 107,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 400,000 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 69,970 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 24.919 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 16.798 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1.474 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 15.324 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 3.219 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Ethiopia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 862,157 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 65 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 54 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017)

Internet country code: .et

Internet users
Total: 20.4 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 17% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 212,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.2 (2020 est.)


Ethiopia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.7% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2018 est.)


Military and security forces: Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2023)
Note 1: national and regional police forces are responsible for law enforcement and maintenance of order, with the ENDF sometimes providing internal security support; the Ethiopian Federal Police (EFP) report to the Prime Minister’s Office
Note 2: the regional governments control regional security forces, including "special" paramilitary forces, which generally operate independently from the federal government and in some cases operate as regional defense forces maintaining national borders; local militias also operate across the country in loose and varying coordination with these regional security and police forces, the ENDF, and the EFP; in April 2023, the federal government ordered the integration of these regional special forces into the EFP or ENDF
Note 3: in 2020 the Ethiopian Government announced Ethiopia - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 75
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,501,244 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,089,280,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: ET

Airports: 57 (2021)
With paved runways: 17
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 40
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 17
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 40
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways
Total: 659 km (2017) (Ethiopian segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
Standard gauge: 659 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge
Note: electric railway with redundant power supplies; under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia and managed by a Chinese contractor

Roadways
Total: 120,171 km (2018)
Paved: (2018)
Unpaved: (2015)

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 12 (2022)
By type: general cargo 10, oil tanker 2

Ports and terminals: Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia


Ethiopia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Ethiopia-Eritrea: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement

Ethiopia-Somalia: the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden (populated largely by ethnic Somalis) and southern Somalia's Oromo region; the Somalia-based terrorist group al-Shabaab has conducted cross-border assaults into Ethiopia as recently as 2022

Ethiopia-South Sudan: while border clashes continue in the al-Fashqa (Fashaga) area, the US views the 1902 boundary treaty between Ethiopia and Sudan as being in force

Ethiopia-Sudan: Ethiopia's construction of a large dam (the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) on the Blue Nile in northern Ethiopia since 2011 has become a focal point of relations with Egypt and Sudan; Egypt has described the giant hydroelectric project as an existential threat because of its potential to control the flow of the river that is a key source of water for the country; Ethiopia completed filling the dam in 2023


Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 418,749 (South Sudan), 309,581 (Somalia), 167,391 (Eritrea), 25,463 (Sudan) (refugees since 15 April 2023) (2023)
IDPs: 4.385 million (includes conflict- and climate-induced IDPs, excluding unverified estimates from the Amhara region; border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Somali and Oromia regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2023)

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center


Austrian Airlines


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