Statistical information Guatemala 2023Guatemala

Map of Guatemala | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Guatemala in the World
Guatemala in the World

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Guatemala - Introduction 2023
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Background: The Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the internal conflict.


Guatemala - Geography 2023
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Location: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize

Geographic coordinates: 15 30 N, 90 15 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Area
Total: 108,889 km²
Land: 107,159 km²
Water: 1,730 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries
Total: 1,667 km
Border countries: (4) Belize 266 km; El Salvador 199 km; Honduras 244 km; Mexico 958 km

Coastline: 400 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

Terrain: two east-west trending mountain chains divide the country into three regions: the mountainous highlands, the Pacific coast south of mountains, and the vast northern Peten lowlands

Elevation
Highest point: Volcan Tajumulco (highest point in Central America) 4,220 m
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 759 m

Natural resources: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 41.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 14.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 8.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 18.2% (2018 est.)
Forest: 33.6% (2018 est.)
Other: 25.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,375 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 840 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 600 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 1.89 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 127.91 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms

Geography
Note note 1: despite having both eastern and western coastlines (Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean respectively), there are no natural harbors on the west coast
Note note 2: Guatemala is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire


Guatemala - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: the vast majority of the populace resides in the southern half of the country, particularly in the mountainous regions; more than half of the population lives in rural areas: 17,980,803 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.54% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 59.3% (2014 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Guatemalan(s)
Adjective: Guatemalan

Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) 56%, Maya 41.7%, Xinca (Indigenous, non-Maya) 1.8%, African descent 0.2%, Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak) 0.1%, foreign 0.2% (2018 est.)

Languages: Spanish (official) 69.9%, Maya languages 29.7% (Q'eqchi' 8.3%, K'iche 7.8%, Mam 4.4%, Kaqchikel 3%, Q'anjob'al 1.2%, Poqomchi' 1%, other 4%), other 0.4% (includes Xinca and Garifuna); note - the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinca, and Garifuna (2018 est.)
Major-language samples:
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Roman Catholic 41.7%, Evangelical 38.8%, other 2.7%, atheist 0.1%, none 13.8%, unspecified 2.9% (2018 est.)

Demographic profile: Guatemala is a predominantly poor country that struggles in several areas of health and development, including infant, child, and maternal mortality, malnutrition, literacy, and contraceptive awareness and use. The country's large indigenous population is disproportionately affected. Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America and has the highest fertility rate in Latin America. It also has the highest population growth rate in Latin America, which is likely to continue because of its large reproductive-age population and high birth rate. Almost half of Guatemala's population is under age 19, making it the youngest population in Latin America. Guatemala's total fertility rate has slowly declined during the last few decades due in part to limited government-funded health programs. However, the birth rate is still more close to three children per woman and is markedly higher among its rural and indigenous populations.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 31.98% (male 2,927,423/female 2,822,441)
15-64 years: 62.78% (male 5,568,051/female 5,720,928)
65 years and over: 5.24% (2023 est.) (male 420,782/female 521,178)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 60.9
Youth dependency ratio: 53
Elderly dependency ratio: 7.9
Potential support ratio: 12.7 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 24.4 years (2023 est.)
Male: 23.8 years
Female: 25 years

Population growth rate: 1.54% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 21.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: the vast majority of the populace resides in the southern half of the country, particularly in the mountainous regions; more than half of the population lives in rural areas

Urbanization
Urban population: 53.1% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 2.59% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 3.095 million GUATEMALA CITY (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
International agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 20.75 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 16.78 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 10.7 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 20.6 years (2014/15 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 96 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 22.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 71.2 years
Female: 75.3 years

Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 60.6% (2014/15)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 97.9% of population
Improved rural: 92.2% of population
Improved total: 95% of population
Unimproved urban: 2.1% of population
Unimproved rural: 8% of population
Unimproved total: 5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 6.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 1.24 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 0.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
90.4% of population

rural: 66.3% of population

total: 78.8% of population

Unimproved urban:
9.6% of population

rural: 33.7% of population

total: 21.2% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 21.2% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 1.63 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.68 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 10.9% (2020 est.)
Male: 20.1% (2020 est.)
Female: 1.6% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.4% (2021/22)

Education expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (2021 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 83.3%
Male: 87.7%
Female: 79.3% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 10 years (2019)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 7.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 6.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 9.4%


Guatemala - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
Conventional short form: Guatemala
Local long form: República de Guatemala
Local short form: Guatemala
Etymology: the Spanish conquistadors used many native Americans as allies in their conquest of Guatemala; the site of their first capital (established in 1524), a former Maya settlement, was called "Quauhtemallan" by their Nahuatl-speaking Mexican allies, a name that means "land of trees" or "forested land", but which the Spanish pronounced "Guatemala"; the Spanish applied that name to a re-founded capital city three years later and eventually it became the name of the country

Government type: presidential republic

Capital
Name: Guatemala City
Geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
Time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the Spanish conquistadors used many native Americans as allies in their conquest of Guatemala; the site of their first capital (established in 1524), a former Maya settlement, was called "Quauhtemallan" by their Nahuatl-speaking Mexican allies, a name that means "land of trees" or "forested land", but which the Spanish pronounced "Guatemala"; the Spanish applied that name to a re-founded capital city three years later and eventually it became the name of the country

Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest adopted 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended and reinstated in 1994
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by agreement of 10 or more deputies of Congress, by the Constitutional Court, or by public petition of at least 5,000 citizens; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Congress membership and approval by public referendum, referred to as "popular consultation"; constitutional articles such as national sovereignty, the republican form of government, limitations on those seeking the presidency, or presidential tenure cannot be amended; amended 1993

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years with no absences of six consecutive months or longer or absences totaling more than a year

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police by law cannot vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (since 14 January 2020); Vice President Cesar Guillermo CASTILLO Reyes (since 14 January 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (since 14 January 2020); Vice President Cesar Guillermo CASTILLO Reyes (since 14 January 2020)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (not eligible for consecutive terms); election last held on 25 June 2023 with a runoff on 20 August 2023 (next to be held in June 2,027)
Election results:

2023:
Bernardo ARÉVALO de León elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Sandra TORRES (UNE) 21%; Bernardo ARÉVALO de León (SEMILLA) 15.6%, Manuel CONDE Orellana (VAMOS) 10.4%; Armando CASTILLO Alvarado (VIVA) 9.6%, other 43.4%; percent of vote in second round - Bernardo ARÉVALO de León 60.9%, Sandra TORRES 39.1%; note - ARÉVALO is scheduled to take office 14 January 2024

2019:
Alejandro GIAMMATTEI elected president; percent of vote in first round - Sandra TORRES (UNE) 25.5%, Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (VAMOS) 14%, Edmond MULET (PHG) 11.2%, Thelma CABRERA (MLP) 10.4%, Roberto ARZU (PAN-PODEMOS) 6.1%, other 32.8%; percent of vote in second round - Alejandro GIAMMATTEI 58%, Sandra TORRES 42%


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (160 seats; 128 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies in the country's 22 departments and 32 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote, using the D'Hondt method; members serve 4-year terms)
Elections: last held on 25 June 2023 (next to be held in June 2,027)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VAMOS 39, UNE 28, SEMILLA 23, CABAL 18, Valor-Unionist 12, VIVA 11, TODOS 6, VOS 4, BIEN 4, CREO 3, PPN 3, Victoria 3, Blue 2, Elephant 2, Change 1, Winaq-URNG 1; composition - men 128, women 32, percent of women 20%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 13 magistrates, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - the court president also supervises trial judges countrywide; note - the Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad of Guatemala resides outside the country's judicial system; its sole purpose is the interpretation of the constitution and to see that the laws and regulations are not superior to the constitution (consists of 5 titular magistrates and 5 substitute magistrates)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates elected by the Congress of the Republic from candidates proposed by the Postulation Committee, an independent body of deans of the country's university law schools, representatives of the country's law associations, and representatives of the Courts of Appeal; magistrates elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges - 1 elected by the Congress of the Republic, 1 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 1 by the (public) University of San Carlos, and 1 by the Assembly of the College of Attorneys and Notaries; judges elected for renewable, consecutive 5-year terms; the presidency of the court rotates among the magistrates for a single 1-year term
Subordinate courts: Appellate Courts of Accounts, Contentious Administrative Tribunal, courts of appeal, first instance courts, child and adolescence courts, minor or peace courts

Political parties and leaders:
Bienestar Nacional or BIEN [Fidel REYES LEE]
Blue Party (Partido Azul) or Blue [Jorge VILLAGRÁN]
CABAL [Edmond MULET]
Cambio [Manuel BALDIZÓN]
Citizen Prosperity or PC [Hernan MEJIA and Jorge GARCIA SILVA]
Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Rodolfo NEUTZE]
Elephant Community (Comunidad Elefante) or Elephant [Hugo PEÑA Medina]
Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS]
Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG-MAIZ or URNG [Walter FELIX]
Humanist Party of Guatemala or PHG [Rudio MERIDA]
Movement for the Liberation of Peoples or MLP [Thelma CABRERA and Vincenta JERONIMO]
Movimiento Semilla or SEMILLA [Bernardo ARÉVALO de León]
National Advancement Party or PAN [Manuel CONDE]
National Convergence Front or FCN-NACION [Javier HERNANDEZ]
National Unity for Hope or UNE [Adim MALDONADO]
Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Carlos ROJAS and Sofia HERNANDEZ] (dissolved 16 December 2021)
Nosotros or PPN [Rudy GUZMAN and Nadia de LEÓN Torres]
PODEMOS [Jose LEON]
Political Movement Winaq or Winaq [Sonia GUTIERREZ Raguay]
TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS]
Value or VALOR [Zury RIOS and Lucrecia MARROQUIN]
Vamos por una Guatemala Diferente or VAMOS [Alejandro GIAMMATTEI]
Victory or VICTORIA [flag of Guatemala: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue, with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) representing liberty and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) - all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles signifying Guatemala's willingness to defend itself and a pair of crossed swords representing honor - and framed by a laurel wreath symbolizing victory; the blue bands represent the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea; the white band denotes peace and purity
Note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Mozambique

National symbols: quetzal (bird); national colors: blue, white

National anthem
Name: "Himno Nacional de Guatemala" (National Anthem of Guatemala)
Lyrics/music: Jose Joaquin PALMA/Rafael Alvarez OVALLE
Note: adopted 1897, modified lyrics adopted 1934; Cuban poet Jose Joaquin PALMA anonymously submitted lyrics to a public contest calling for a national anthem; his authorship was not discovered until 1911

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 4 (3 cultural, 1 mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Antigua Guatemala (c); Tikal National Park (m); Archaeological Park and Ruins of Quirigua (c); National Archaeological Park Tak'alik Ab'aj (c)


Guatemala - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: growing Central American economy; unique South Korean business relations; high poverty, inequality, and malnutrition; low government revenues impede educational, sanitation, and healthcare efforts; high migration, child labor, and remittances

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$152.734 billion (2021 est.)
$141.445 billion (2020 est.)
$143.985 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
7.98% (2021 est.)
-1.76% (2020 est.)
4% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 86.3% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 9.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 12.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 18.8% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -26.9% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 13.3% (2017 est.)
Industry: 23.4% (2017 est.)
Services: 63.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 8.49% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 6.671 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.57% (2021 est.)
3.55% (2020 est.)
2.19% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 7.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 6.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 9.4%

Population below poverty line: 59.3% (2014 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 48.3 (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.6%
Highest 10%: 38.4% (2014)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $8.647 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $10.373 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
31.56% of GDP (2020 est.)
26.49% of GDP (2019 est.)
26.48% of GDP (2018 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 9.97% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.78% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$2.113 billion (2021 est.)
$3.918 billion (2020 est.)
$1.821 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
4.26% (2021 est.)
3.21% (2020 est.)
3.7% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$2.113 billion (2021 est.)
$3.918 billion (2020 est.)
$1.821 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$15.318 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$12.713 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$13.598 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 32%, El Salvador 12%, Honduras 10%, Nicaragua 6%, Mexico 4% (2021)
Commodities: clothing, bananas, coffee, palm oil, cardamoms, raw sugar, iron alloys (2021)

Imports:
$27.388 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$19.267 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$21.527 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 33%, China 17%, Mexico 9%, El Salvador 5%, Costa Rica 3% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, cars, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, clothing and apparel, polymers (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$20.935 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$18.464 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$14.784 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$22.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$21.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
quetzales (GTQ) per US dollar - 7.734 (2021 est.)
7.722 (2020 est.)
7.697 (2019 est.)
7.519 (2018 est.)
7.348 (2017 est.)



Guatemala - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 1 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 97.8% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 97.6% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 98.1% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 10,793,650,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 2.19 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 1.141 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 5.185 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 39.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 2.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 38% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 2.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 17% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 10,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 112,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 6,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 86.1 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 1,162 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 10,810 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 97,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 19.041 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 5.037 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 14.004 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 19.411 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Guatemala - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 1,917,670 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 22,124,839 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 4 privately owned national terrestrial TV channels dominate TV broadcasting; multi-channel satellite and cable services are available; 1 government-owned radio station and hundreds of privately owned radio stations (2019)

Internet country code: .gt

Internet users
Total: 9.18 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 51% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 612,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)


Guatemala - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.5% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2018 est.)


Military and security forces: Army of Guatemala (Ejercito de Guatemala; aka Armed Forces of Guatemala or Fuerzas Armadas de Guatemala): Land Forces (Fuerzas de Tierra), Naval Forces (Fuerzas de Mar), and Air Force (Fuerza de Aire) (2023)
Note: the National Civil Police (Policia Nacional Civil or PNC) are under the Ministry of Government (Interior)

Military service age and obligation: all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are eligible for military service; in practice, most of the force is volunteer, however, a selective draft system is employed, resulting in a small portion of 17-21 year-olds being conscripted; conscript service obligation varies from 12-24 months; women may volunteer (2023)
Note: as of 2017, women comprised up to 10% of the active military

Terrorist groups


Guatemala - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 145,795 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 110,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: TG

Airports: 291 (2021)
With paved runways: 16
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 275
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 16
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 275
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)

Pipelines: 480 km oil (2013)

Railways
Total: 800 km (2018)
Narrow gauge: 800 km (2018) 0.914-m gauge
Note: despite the existence of a railway network, all rail service was suspended in 2007 and no passenger or freight train currently runs in the country (2018)

Roadways
Total: 17,440 km (2020)
Paved: 7,458 km (2020)
Unpaved: 9,982 km (2020) (includes 4,548 km of rural roads)

Waterways: 990 km (2012) (260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season)

Merchant marine
Total: 9 (2022)
By type: oil tanker 1, other 8

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla


Guatemala - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Guatemala-Belize: demarcated but disputed boundary due to Guatemala’s claims to more than half of Belizean territory; line of Adjacency operates in lieu of an international boundary to control influx of Guatemalan squatters onto Belizean territory; smuggling, narcotics trafficking, and human trafficking are also problems; the dispute was referred to the ICJ in 2019 for binding resolution; the 12-nm territorial sea claims of Belize and Honduras close off Guatemalan access to Caribbean in the Bahia de Amatique; maritime boundary remains unresolved pending further negotiation

Guatemala-
Mexico: thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans cross the porous border with Mexico looking for work in Mexico and the US


Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs: 242,000 (more than three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996 displaced mainly the indigenous Maya population and rural peasants; ongoing drug cartel and gang violence) (2022)

Illicit drugs: a major transit country for illegal drugs; illicit cultivation of opium poppies, marijuana, and coca plants in rural areas; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


Undercover Tourist


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