Statistical information Hong Kong 2023Hong%20Kong

Map of Hong Kong | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Hong Kong in the World
Hong Kong in the World

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Hong Kong - Introduction 2023
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Background:
Seized by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded by China the following year at the end of the First Opium War; the Kowloon Peninsula was added in 1860 at the end of the Second Opium War, and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic and strict political system would not be imposed on Hong Kong and that Hong Kong would enjoy a "high degree of autonomy" in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the subsequent 50 years.

Since the turnover, Hong Kong has continued to enjoy success as an international financial center. However, dissatisfaction with the Hong Kong Government and growing Chinese political influence has been a central issue and led to considerable civil unrest, including large-scale pro-democracy demonstrations in 2019 after the HKSAR attempted to revise a local ordinance to allow extraditions to mainland China. In response, the governments of the HKSAR and China took several actions that reduced the city's autonomy and placed new restrictions on the rights of Hong Kong residents, moves that were widely criticized to be in direct contravention of obligations under the Hong Kong Basic Law and the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Chief among these actions was a sweeping national security law for Hong Kong imposed by the Chinese Government in June 2020 that criminalized acts such as those interpreted as secession, subversion, terrorism, and collusion with foreign or external forces. The law ushered in a widespread crackdown on public protests, criticism of authorities, and freedom of speech, and was used by authorities to target pro-democracy activists, organizations, and media companies. Democratic lawmakers and political figures were arrested, while others fled abroad. At the same time, dozens of civil society groups and several independent media outlets were closed or have disbanded. In March 2021, Beijing imposed a more restrictive electoral system, including restructuring the Legislative Council (LegCo) and allowing only government-approved candidates to run for office, claiming it was to ensure a system of "patriots" governed Hong Kong. The changes ensured that virtually all seats in the December 2021 LegCo election were won by pro-establishment candidates and effectively ended political opposition to Beijing in the territory.



Hong Kong - Geography 2023
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Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Area
Total: 1,108 km²
Land: 1,073 km²
Water: 35 km²
Comparative: six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 33 km
Regional borders: China 33 km

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Elevation
Highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m
Lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 3.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 0.9% (2018 est.)
Forest: 0% (2018 est.)
Other: 95% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Geography
Note: consists of a mainland area (the New Territories) and more than 200 islands


Hong Kong - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: population fairly evenly distributed: 7,288,167 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.15% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 19.9% (2016 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Chinese/Hong Konger
Adjective: Chinese/Hong Kong

Ethnic groups: Chinese 92%, Filipino 2.5%, Indonesian 2.1%, other 3.4% (2016 est.)

Languages: Cantonese (official) 88.9%, English (official) 4.3%, Mandarin (official) 1.9%, other Chinese dialects 3.1%, other 1.9% (2016 est.)
Major-language samples:  世界概况, 必須擁有的基本資料参考书 (Cantonese)

Religions: Buddhist or Taoist 27.9%, Protestant 6.7%, Roman Catholic 5.3%, Muslim 4.2%, Hindu 1.4%, Sikh 0.2%, other or none 54.3% (2016 est.)
Note: many people practice Confucianism, regardless of their religion or not having a religious affiliation

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 13.04% (male 495,977/female 454,723)
15-64 years: 66.02% (male 2,164,667/female 2,646,774)
65 years and over: 20.94% (2023 est.) (male 706,761/female 819,265)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 46.6
Youth dependency ratio: 17.8
Elderly dependency ratio: 28.7
Potential support ratio: 3.5 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 46.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 45 years
Female: 48.1 years

Population growth rate: 0.15% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 7.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population fairly evenly distributed

Urbanization
Urban population: 100% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.58% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 7.685 million Hong Kong (2023)

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution from rapid urbanization; urban waste pollution; industrial pollution

Air pollutants
Carbon dioxide emissions: 43.64 megatons (2016 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 29.8 years (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 83.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 81.1 years
Female: 86.6 years

Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 66.7% (2017)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020)

Current health expenditure: NA

Physicians density: 2.04 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 4.9 beds/1,000 population (2020)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
96.4% of population

rural: NA

total: 96.4% of population

Unimproved urban:
3.6% of population

rural: NA

total: 3.6% of population (2017)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 4% of GDP (2021 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 17 years
Male: 17 years
Female: 17 years (2021)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 15% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 13.6%


Hong Kong - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Conventional short form: Hong Kong
Local long form: Heung Kong Takpit Hangching Ku (Eitel/Dyer-Ball)
Local short form: Heung Kong (Eitel/Dyer-Ball)
Abbreviation: HK
Etymology: probably an imprecise phonetic rendering of the Cantonese name meaning "fragrant harbor"

Government type: presidential limited democracy; a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China

Capital

Administrative divisions: none (special administrative region of the People's Republic of China)

Dependent areas

Independence: none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July (1997) is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day

Constitution
History: several previous (governance documents while under British authority); latest drafted April 1988 to February 1989, approved March 1990, effective 1 July 1997 (Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China serves as the constitution); note - since 1990, China's National People's Congress has interpreted specific articles of the Basic Law
Amendments: proposed by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC), the People’s Republic of China State Council, or the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong; submittal of proposals to the NPC requires two-thirds majority vote by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong, approval by two thirds of Hong Kong’s deputies to the NPC, and approval by the Hong Kong chief executive; final passage requires approval by the NPC

Legal system: mixed legal system of common law based on the English model and Chinese customary law (in matters of family and land tenure); PRC imposition of National Security Law incorporates elements of Chinese civil law

International law organization participation

Citizenship: see China

Suffrage: 18 years of age in direct elections for 20 of the 90 Legislative Council seats and all of the seats in 18 district councils; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past 7 years; note - in indirect elections, suffrage is limited to about 220,000 members of functional constituencies for the other 70 legislature seats and a 1,500-member election committee for the chief executive drawn from broad sectoral groupings, central government bodies, municipal organizations, and elected Hong Kong officials

Executive branch
Chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)
Head of government: Chief Executive John LEE Ka-chieu (since 1 July 2022)
Cabinet: Executive Council or ExCo appointed by the chief executive
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 March 2023 (next to be held in March 2,028); chief executive indirectly elected by the Election Committee and appointed by the PRC Government for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 May 2022 (next to be held in 2,027)
Election results:
2022: John LEE was the only candidate and won with over 99% of the vote by the Election Committee

2017:
Election Committee vote - Carrie LAM (non-partisan) 777, John TSANG (non-partisan) 365, WOO Kwok-hing (non-partisan) 21, 23 ballots rejected (1,186 votes cast)

Note: electoral changes that Beijing imposed in March 2021 expanded the Election Committee to 1,500 members

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Legislative Council or LegCo (90 seats); 20 members directly elected in 2-seat constituencies, 30 indirectly elected by the approximately 220,000 members of various functional constituencies based on a variety of methods, and 50 indirectly elected by the 1,500-member Election Committee; members serve 4-year terms; note - in March 2021, China's National People's Congress amended the electoral rules and system for the LegCo; the total number of seats increased from 70 to 90, directly elected geographical constituencies were reduced from 35 to 20 seats, while trade-based indirectly elected functional constituencies remained at 30; an additional 40 seats were elected by the 1,500-member Election Commission; all political candidates are evaluated by the Candidate Eligibility Review Committee (CERC), established in April 2022; the CERC consists of the chairperson, 2-4 official members, and 1-3 non-official members, all appointed by the chief executive
Elections: last held on 19 Dec 2021 (next to be held in 2,025)
Election results: percent of vote by bloc: pro-Beijing 93%, non-establishment 7%; seats by block/party - pro-Beijing 89 (DAB 19, FTU 8, BPA 7, NPP 5, Liberal Party 4, FEW 2, FLU 2, other 46), non-establishment 1 (Third Side); composition - men 73, women 17, percent of women 18.9%; note - Hong Kong's leading pro-democracy political parties boycotted the 2021 election

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Court of Final Appeal (consists of the chief justice, 3 permanent judges, and 20 non-permanent judges); note - a sitting bench consists of the chief justice, 3 permanent judges, and 1 non-permanent judge
Judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the Hong Kong Chief Executive upon the recommendation of the Judicial Officers Recommendation Commission, an independent body consisting of the Secretary for Justice, other judges, and judicial and legal professionals; permanent judges serve until normal retirement at age 65, but term can be extended; non-permanent judges appointed for renewable 3-year terms without age limit
Subordinate courts: High Court (consists of the Court of Appeal and Court of First Instance); District Courts (includes Family and Land Courts); magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals

Political parties and leaders:
Bauhinia Party or BP [WONG Chau-chi and LI Shan]
Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong or BPA [LO Wai-kwok]
Concern Group for Tseung Kwan O People's Livelihood or CGPLTKO [N/A] 
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [Starry LEE Wai-king]
Democratic Party [LO Kin-hei]
Federation of Hong Kong and Kowloon Labour Unions or HKFLU [Lam Chun-sing]
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood of ADPL [Bruce LIU]
Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers or HKFEW [LAU Chi-pang]
Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions or HKFTU [labor and political group presided over by NG Chau-pei and chaired by WONG Kwok]
Kowloon West New Dynamic or KWND [Priscilla LEUNG]
Labor Party [Steven KWOK Wing-kin; arrested in 2020]
League of Social Democrats or LSD [CHAN Po-ying]
Liberal Party or LP [led by Tommy CHEUNG; chaired by Peter SHIU]
Neighborhood and Workers Service Center or NWSC [LEUNG Yui-chung]
New Century Forum [MA Fung-kwak]
New People's Party or NPP [Regina IP]
New Prospect for Hong Kong [Gary ZHANG Xinyu]
New Territories Association of Societies or NTAS [CHAN Yung]
Path of Democracy [Ronny TONG] (think tank)
People Power or PP [LEUNG Ka-shing]
Professional Power [Christine FONG Kwok Shan]
Roundtable [Michael TIEN Puk-sun]
Tai Po Democratic Alliance or TPDA [N/A] 
Third Side or TS [TIK Chi-yeun]

Note 1: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Note 2: by the end of 2021, the leading pro-democracy figures in Hong Kong had been effectively removed from the political arena under the provisions of Beijing's 2021 electoral changes or via charges under the 2020 national security law; in addition, dozens of pro-democracy organizations, including political parties, unions, churches, civil rights groups, and media organizations have disbanded or closed; as of 2023, nearly all politically active groups were pro-Beijing

International organization participation: ADB, APEC, BIS, FATF, ICC (national committees), IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITUC (NGOs), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: none (Special Administrative Region of China); Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office (HKETO) carries out normal liaison activities and communication with the US Government and other US entities; Eddie MAK Tak-wai (since 3 July 2018) is the Hong Kong Commissioner to the US Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; address: 1520 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,036; telephone: [1] (202) 331-8,947; FAX: [1] (202) 331-8,958; email: hketo@hketowashington.gov.hk; website: https://www.hketowashington.gov.hk/
In the us HKETO offices: New York, San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Consul General Gregory MAY (since September 2022); note - also accredited to Macau
From the us embassy: 26 Garden Road, Central, Hong Kong
From the us mailing address: 8,000 Hong Kong Place, Washington DC 20,521-8,000
From the us telephone: [852] 2,523-9,011
From the us FAX: [852] 2,845-1598
From the us email address and website:
acshk@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Hong%20Kong: red with a stylized, white, five-petal Bauhinia flower in the center; each petal contains a small, red, five-pointed star in its middle; the red color is the same as that on the Chinese flag and represents the motherland; the fragrant Bauhinia - developed in Hong Kong the late 19th century - has come to symbolize the region; the five stars echo those on the flag of China

National symbols: orchid tree flower; national colors: red, white

National anthem
Note: as a Special Administrative Region of China, "Yiyongjun Jinxingqu" is the official anthem (see China)

National heritage


Hong Kong - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income tourism- and services-based economy; global financial hub; COVID-19 and political protests fueled recent recession; ongoing recovery but lower-skilled unemployment remains high; investing in job-reskilling programs

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$444.624 billion (2021 est.)
$418.103 billion (2020 est.)
$447.385 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
6.34% (2021 est.)
-6.55% (2020 est.)
-1.68% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 67% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 9.9% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 188% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -187.1% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 0.1% (2017 est.)
Industry: 7.6% (2017 est.)
Services: 92.3% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: trading and logistics, financial services, professional services, tourism, cultural and creative, clothing and textiles, shipping, electronics, toys, clocks and watches

Industrial production growth rate: 2.08% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 3.842 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.32% (2021 est.)
5.83% (2020 est.)
2.93% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 15% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 13.6%

Population below poverty line: 19.9% (2016 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 53.9 (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.8% NA
Highest 10%: 38.1% (2016) NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $70.124 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $105.849 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: 5.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
0.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 23.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
$41.712 billion (2021 est.)
$24.092 billion (2020 est.)
$21.23 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.57% (2021 est.)
0.25% (2020 est.)
2.88% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$41.712 billion (2021 est.)
$24.092 billion (2020 est.)
$21.23 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$751.26 billion (2021 est.)
$608.159 billion (2020 est.)
$645.007 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 23%, India 14%, Netherlands 6%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)
Commodities: gold, integrated circuits, gas turbines, broadcasting equipment, silver, diamonds, telephones (2021)

Imports:
$733.459 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$601.528 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$639.363 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 46%, Taiwan 7%, Singapore 7%, Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$496.867 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$491.776 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$441.35 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$1,648,409,000,000 (2019 est.)
$1,670,919,000,000 (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Hong Kong dollars (HKD) per US dollar - 7.773 (2021 est.)
7.757 (2020 est.)
7.836 (2019 est.)
7.839 (2018 est.)
7.793 (2017 est.)



Hong Kong - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 44,183,900,000 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 12.7 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 14.168 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 99.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 100 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 404,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 13,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 402,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 4,913,021,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 4,913,021,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 92.493 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 23.557 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 62.451 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 6.484 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 172.009 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Hong Kong - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 3,673,290 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 51 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 23,939,650 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 319 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 34 commercial terrestrial TV networks each with multiple stations; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems available; 3 licensed broadcasters of terrestrial radio, one of which is government funded, operate about 12 radio stations; note - 4 digital radio broadcasters operated in Hong Kong from 2010 to 2017, but all digital radio services were terminated in September 2017 due to weak market demand (2019)

Internet country code: .hk

Internet users
Total: 6.975 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 2,885,586 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2020 est.)


Hong Kong - Military 2023
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces: no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong Police Force (specialized units include the Police Counterterrorism Response Unit, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bureau, the Special Duties Unit, the Airport Security Unit, and the VIP Protection Unit) (2023)
Note: the Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) includes elements of the PLA Army, PLA Navy, and PLA Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Southern Theater Command

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Hong Kong - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 12 (2020) (registered in China)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 275 (registered in China)
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 47,101,822 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 12,676,720,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: B-H

Airports: 2 (2021)
With paved runways: 2
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with paved runways: 2
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 9 (2021)

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways
Total: 2,193 km (2021)
Paved: 2,193 km (2021)

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 2,661 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 1,135, container ship 558, general cargo 155, oil tanker 394, other 419

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Hong Kong
Container ports teus: Hong Kong (17,798,000) (2021)


Hong Kong - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: the Frontier Closed Area was established in 1951 as a buffer zone between Hong Kong and mainland China to prevent illegal migration and the smuggling of goods 

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: modern banking system provides conduit for money laundering; groups involved in money laundering range from local street organizations to sophisticated international syndicates involved in assorted criminal activities, including drug trafficking; major source of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


Iberostar Hotels


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