Statistical information Hungary 2023Hungary

Map of Hungary | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Hungary in the World
Hungary in the World

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Hungary - Introduction 2023
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Background: Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.


Hungary - Geography 2023
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Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 93,028 km²
Land: 89,608 km²
Water: 3,420 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana

Land boundaries
Total: 2,106 km
Border countries: (7) Austria 321 km; Croatia 348 km; Romania 424 km; Serbia 164 km; Slovakia 627 km; Slovenia 94 km; Ukraine 128 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation
Highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
Mean elevation: 143 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 58.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 48.5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)
Forest: 22.5% (2018 est.)
Other: 18.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,010 km² (2019)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Duna (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 660 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 3.45 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 550 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 104 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions


Hungary - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations: 9,670,009 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: -0.33% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 12.3% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Hungarian(s)
Adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)
Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5-10% of Hungary's population

Languages: Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%; note - shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)
Major-language samples:
A World Factbook nélkülözhetetlen forrása az alapvető információnak. (Hungarian)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Catholic 30.1% (Roman Catholic 27.5%, Greek Catholic 1.7%, other Catholic 0.9%), Calvinist 9.8%, Lutheran 1.8%, other Christian (includes Orthodox) 1.6%, other 0.4%, none 16.1%, no answer 40.1% (2022 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 14.24% (male 709,089/female 668,143)
15-64 years: 63.97% (male 3,091,384/female 3,094,515)
65 years and over: 21.79% (2023 est.) (male 812,063/female 1,294,815)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.8
Youth dependency ratio: 22.4
Elderly dependency ratio: 31.4
Potential support ratio: 3.2 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 44.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 42.6 years
Female: 46.4 years

Population growth rate: -0.33% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 9.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Urbanization
Urban population: 72.9% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.778 million BUDAPEST (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution are some of Hungary's most serious environmental problems; water quality in the Hungarian part of the Danube has improved but is still plagued by pollutants from industry and large-scale agriculture; soil pollution
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 14.24 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 45.54 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 7.25 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 28.4 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 15 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 72.1 years
Female: 78.7 years

Total fertility rate: 1.59 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 7.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 6.06 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 7 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: intermediate (2016)
Vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 26.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 10.79 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 3.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 3.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 31.8% (2020 est.)
Male: 35.8% (2020 est.)
Female: 27.8% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 4.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.1%
Male: 99.1%
Female: 99.1% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 13.5% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 11.5%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 16.2%


Hungary - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Hungary
Local long form: none
Local short form: Magyarorszag
Former: Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Hungarian Republic
Etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the "Oungroi," a name that was later Latinized to "Ungri" and which became "Hungari"; the name originally meant an "[alliance of] ten tribes"; the Hungarian name "Magyarorszag" means "Country of the Magyars"; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital
Name: Budapest
Geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: the Hungarian capital city was formed in 1873 from the merger of three cities on opposite banks of the Danube: Buda and Obuda (Old Buda) on the western shore and Pest on the eastern; the origins of the original names are obscure, but according to the second century A.D. geographer, Ptolemy, the settlement that would become Pest was called "Pession" in ancient times; "Buda" may derive from either a Slavic or Turkic personal name

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)

National holiday: Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his canonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083

Constitution
History: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system: civil legal system influenced by the German model

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICC jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age, 16 if married and marriage is registered in Hungary; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Katalin NOVAK (since 10 May 2022)
Head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 March 2022 (next to be held spring 2,027); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held April or May 2,027)
Election results:
2022: Katalin NOVAK (Fidesz) elected president; National Assembly vote - 137 to 51

2017:
Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote, using the D’Hondt method; members serve 4-year terms)
Elections: last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in April 2,026)
Election results: percent of vote by party list - Fidesz-KDNP 54.1%, United for Hungary 34.5%, Mi Hazank 5.9%, other 5.5%; seats by party list - Fidesz-KDNP 135, United for Hungary 57, Mi Hazank 6, independent 1; composition as of June 2023 - men 171, women 28, percent of women 14.1%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, department heads, and has a maximum of 113 judges, and is organized into civil, criminal, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges, including the court president and vice president)
Judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement at age 62; Constitutional Court judges, including the president of the court, elected by the National Assembly; court vice president elected by the court itself; members serve 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 62
Subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative-labor courts; 111 district or local courts

Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary (Parbeszed) or PM [Bence TORDAI, Rebeka SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Bertalan TOTH, Agnes KUNHALMI]
LMP-Hungary's Green Party [Peter UNGAR, Erzsebet SCHMUCK]
Mi Hazank (Our Homeland Movement) or MHM [Laszlo TOROCZKAI]
Momentum Movement (Momentum Mozgalom) [Ferenc GELENCSER]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Marton GYONGYOSI]
National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary or LdU [Ibolya HOCK-ENGLENDER]
United for Hungary (a coalition of Jobbik, MSZP, Dialogue, DK, LMP, and Momentum)


International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Szabolcs Ferenc TAKACS (since 23 December 2020)
In the us chancery:
1500 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20,005

In the us telephone: [1] (202) 362-6,730
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 966-8,135
In the us email address and website:
info.was@mfa.gov.hu

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David PRESSMAN (since 14 September 2022)
From the us embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
From the us mailing address: 5,270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-5,270
From the us telephone: [36] (1) 475-4,400
From the us FAX: [36] (1) 475-4,248
From the us email address and website:
acs.budapest@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Hungary: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country

National symbols: Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green

National anthem
Name: "Himnusz" (Hymn)
Lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
Note: adopted 1844

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 8 (7 cultural, 1 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


Hungary - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income EU and OECD economy; decreasing government spending; increasing judicial independence concerns; flat income taxation; increasingly dependent on energy imports; strong tourism and automotive manufacturing

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$326.186 billion (2021 est.)
$304.513 billion (2020 est.)
$319.019 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
7.12% (2021 est.)
-4.55% (2020 est.)
4.86% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 49.6% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.6% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 90.2% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -82.4% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3.9% (2017 est.)
Industry: 31.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 64.8% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 6.64% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 4.91 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.12% (2021 est.)
4.25% (2020 est.)
3.42% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 13.5% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 11.5%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 16.2%

Population below poverty line: 12.3% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 30 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 3.3%
Highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $70.83 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $74.127 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
96.11% of GDP (2020 est.)
83.29% of GDP (2019 est.)
86.55% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and national, state, and local government and social security funds.

Taxes and other revenues: 22.87% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.1% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$7.173 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.603 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.231 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.11% (2021 est.)
3.33% (2020 est.)
3.34% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$7.173 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.603 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.231 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$148.229 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$124.111 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$133.736 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 27%, Romania 5%, Italy 5%, Slovakia 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, electric batteries, video displays, packaged medicines, spark-ignition engines, broadcasting equipment (2021)

Imports:
$147.577 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$121.016 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$129.901 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 25%, China 6%, Poland 6%, Austria 6%, Czechia 5%, Slovakia 5%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$43.483 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$41.349 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$31.831 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$123.256 billion (2019 est.)
$125.29 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
forints (HUF) per US dollar - 303.141 (2021 est.)
307.997 (2020 est.)
290.66 (2019 est.)
270.212 (2018 est.)
274.433 (2017 est.)



Hungary - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 41.533 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 7.498 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 19.176 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 10.873 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 36.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 46% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 7.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 7.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 35,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 180,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 8,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 134,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 12.1 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 152,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 58,720 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 82,110 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 1.685 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 10.545 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 3.758 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Imports: 11.678 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 3.738 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 48.589 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 7.501 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 21.568 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 19.52 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 108.212 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Hungary - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 2,845,376 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 10,248,653 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: mixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media (2019)

Internet country code: .hu

Internet users
Total: 8.633 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 89% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 3,382,136 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34.83 (2021 est.)


Hungary - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2.4% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2021)
1.8% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces: Hungarian Defense Forces (HDF or Magyar Honvédség): the HDF is organized as a joint force under a general staff with commands for land, air, cyber, special operations, territorial defense, and support forces (2023)
Note: the National Police are under the Ministry of Interior and responsible for maintaining order nationwide; the Ministry of Interior also has the Counterterrorism Center, a special police force responsible for protecting the president and the prime minister and for preventing, uncovering, and detecting terrorist acts

Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (abolished 2005); 6-month service obligation (2023)
Note: as of 2021, women comprised over 20% of Hungary's full-time military personnel

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Hungary - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 145
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 31,226,848 (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: HA

Airports: 41 (2021)
With paved runways: 20
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 21
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 20
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 21
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 3 (2021)

Pipelines: 5,874 km gas (high-pressure transmission system), 83,732 km gas (low-pressure distribution network), 850 km oil, 1,200 km refined products (2018)

Railways
Total: 7,687 km (2020) 3,111 km electrified

Roadways
Total: 203,601 km (2014)
Paved: 77,087 km (2014) (includes 1,582 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)

Waterways: 1,622 km (2011) (most on Danube River)

Merchant marine
Total: 1 (2022)
By type: other 1

Ports and terminals
River ports: Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)


Hungary - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: Hungary and Slovakia have a long-running dispute over the implementation of a 1970s Soviet-era hydropower project on the Danube, the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros project 

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 63,775 (Ukraine) (as of 17 December 2023)
Stateless persons: 130 (2022)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy


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