Statistical information India 2023India

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India in the World
India in the World


India - Introduction 2023
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Background: The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.

India - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Total: 3,287,263 km²
Land: 2,973,193 km²
Water: 314,070 km²
Comparative: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries
Total: 13,888 km
Border countries: (6) Bangladesh 4,142 km; Bhutan 659 km; Burma 1,468 km; China 2,659 km; Nepal 1,770 km; Pakistan 3,190 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,586 m
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 160 m

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, lead, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 60.5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 52.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 4.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 3.5% (2018 est.)
Forest: 23.1% (2018 est.)
Other: 16.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 715,539 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Brahmaputra (shared with China [s] and Bangladesh [m]) - 3,969 km; Indus (shared with China [s] and Pakistan [m]) - 3,610 km; Ganges river source (shared with Bangladesh [m]) - 2,704 km; Godavari - 1,465 km; Sutlej (shared with China [s] and Pakistan [m]) - 1,372 km; Yamuna - 1,370 km; Narmada - 1,289 km; Chenab river source (shared with Pakistan [m]) - 1,086 km; Ghaghara river mouth (shared with China [s] and Nepal) - 1,080 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Indian Ocean drainage: Brahmaputra (651,335 km²), Ganges (1,016,124 km²), Indus (1,081,718 km²), Irrawaddy (413,710 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 56 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 17 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 688 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 1.91 trillion cubic meters (2019 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal

India - People 2023
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Distribution: with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations: 1,399,179,585 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.7% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 21.9% (2011 est.)

Noun: Indian(s)
Adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, and other 3% (2000)

Languages: Hindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6%; note - English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; there are 22 other officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2011 est.)
Major-language samples: विश्व फ़ैक्टबुक, आधारभूत जानकारी का एक अनिवार्य स्रोत (Hindi)

Religions: Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 24.77% (male 182,143,540/female 164,492,120)
15-64 years: 68.42% (male 494,814,550/female 462,533,456)
65 years and over: 6.8% (2023 est.) (male 43,860,101/female 51,335,818)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 48.1
Youth dependency ratio: 38.1
Elderly dependency ratio: 10.1
Potential support ratio: 9.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 29.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 28.8 years
Female: 30.2 years

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 16.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations

Urban population: 36.4% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 2.33% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 32.941 million NEW DELHI (capital), 21.297 million Mumbai, 15.333 million Kolkata, 13.608 million Bangalore, 11.776 million Chennai, 10.801 million Hyderabad (2023)

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources; preservation and quality of forests; biodiversity loss
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 50.17 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 2,407.67 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 559.11 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 21.2 years (2019/21)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 103 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 30.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 30 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 30.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 66 years
Female: 69.6 years

Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 66.7% (2019/20)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 96.9% of population
Improved rural: 94.7% of population
Improved total: 95.5% of population
Unimproved urban: 3.1% of population
Unimproved rural: 5.3% of population
Unimproved total: 4.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.74 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 0.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
98.6% of population

rural: 75.2% of population

total: 83.4% of population

Unimproved urban:
1.4% of population

rural: 24.8% of population

total: 16.6% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
Water contact diseases: leptospirosis
Animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 3.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 3.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 27.2% (2020 est.)
Male: 41.3% (2020 est.)
Female: 13% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 31.5% (2019/21)

Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 74.4%
Male: 82.4%
Female: 65.8% (2018)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 12 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 28.3% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 28.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 26.7%

India - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of India
Conventional short form: India
Local long form: Republic of India (English)/ Bharatiya Ganarajya (Hindi)
Local short form: India (English)/ Bharat (Hindi)
Etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India

Government type: federal parliamentary republic

Name: New Delhi
Geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
Time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the city's name is associated with various myths and legends; the original name for the city may have been Dhilli or Dhillika; alternatively, the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words "dehleez" or "dehali" - both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway" - and indicative of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain; after the British decided to move the capital of their Indian Empire from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911, they created a new governmental district south of the latter designated as New Delhi; the new capital was not formally inaugurated until 1931

Administrative divisions: 28 states and 8 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir*, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Ladakh*, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
Note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from the UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950)

History: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
Amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system: common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Droupadi MURMU (since 25 July 2022); Vice President Jagdeep DHANKHAR (since 11 August 2022)
Head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
Cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 July 2022 (next to be held in July 2,027); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2022 (next to be held in August 2,027); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party
Election results:
2022: Droupadi MURMU elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Droupadi MURMU (BJP) 64%, Yashwant SINHA (AITC) 35.9%; Jagdeep DHANKHAR elected vice president; percent of electoral college vote - Jagdeep DHANKHAR (BJP) 74.4%, Margaret ALVA (INC) 25.6%

2017: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.6%, Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.4%; Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; percent of electoral college vote - Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 67.9%, Gopal-krishna GANDHI 32.1%

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of:
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years at various dates)
House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

Council of States - last held by state and territorial assemblies at various dates in 2019 (in progress March through July 2022 to fill 70 expiry seats)

House of the People - last held April-May 2019 in 7 phases (next to be held in 2024)

Election results:
Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - BJP 97, INC 34, AITC 13, DMK 10, other 2, independent 2; composition - men 209, women 29, percent of women 13.8%

House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 55.8%, INC 9.6%, AITC 4.4%, YSRCP 4.4%, DMK 4.2%, SS 3.3%, JDU 2.9%, BJD 2.2%, BSP 1.8%, TRS 1.7%, LJP 1.1%, NCP 0.9%, SP 0.9%, other 21.2%, independent 0.7%; seats by party - BJP 303, INC 52, DMK 24, AITC 22, YSRCP 22, SS 18, JDU 16, BJD 12, BSP 10, TRS 9, LJP 6, NCP 5, SP 5, other 35, independent 4, vacant 2; composition - men 465, women 78, percent of women 14.3%; note - total Parliament percent of women 11.3%

Note: in late September 2023, both the Council of States and the House of the People passed a bill that reserves one-third of the House seats for women; implementation could begin for the House election in 2,029

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges, including the chief justice)
Judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
Subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
Note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases

Political parties and leaders:
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Jagat Prakash NADDA]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Sitaram YECHURY]
Dravida Munnetra Khazhagam [Muthuvel Karunanidhi STALIN]
Indian National Congress or INC [Mallikarjun KHARGE]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Sukhbir Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [N. Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress or YSRCP or YCP [Y.S. Jaganmohan REDDY]

Note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

International organization participation: ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), Quad, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSOM, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador [link]

Flag descriptionflag of India: three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
Note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

National symbols: the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green

National anthem
Name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
Lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
Note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 41 (33 cultural, 7 natural, 1 mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]

India - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: largest South Asian economy; still informal domestic economies; COVID-19 reversed both economic growth and poverty reduction; credit access weaknesses contributing to lower private consumption and inflation; new social and infrastructure equity efforts

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$9.279 trillion (2021 est.)
$8.538 trillion (2020 est.)
$9.14 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
8.68% (2021 est.)
-6.6% (2020 est.)
3.74% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 28.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 3.9% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 19.1% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 15.4% (2016 est.)
Industry: 23% (2016 est.)
Services: 61.5% (2016 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: 10.27% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 476.67 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.98% (2021 est.)
8% (2020 est.)
5.27% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 28.3% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 28.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 26.7%

Population below poverty line: 21.9% (2011 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 35.7 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 3.6%
Highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $495.007 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $818.94 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
46.52% of GDP (2018 est.)
47.58% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.63% of GDP (2016 est.)

Note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Taxes and other revenues: 12.02% (of GDP) (2018 est.)

From forest resources: 0.14% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 1.15% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
-$33.422 billion (2021 est.)
$32.73 billion (2020 est.)
-$29.763 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.13% (2021 est.)
6.62% (2020 est.)
3.73% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$33.422 billion (2021 est.)
$32.73 billion (2020 est.)
-$29.763 billion (2019 est.)

$643.08 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$484.691 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$546.033 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: US 18%, UAE 6%, China 6%, Bangladesh 4%, Hong Kong 3% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, diamonds, packaged medicines, jewelry, rice (2021)

$717.119 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$493.033 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$619.485 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 17%, United Arab Emirates 7%, United States 7%, Switzerland 6%, Saudi Arabia 5% (2021)
Commodities: crude petroleum, gold, coal, diamonds, natural gas (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$638.485 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$590.227 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$463.47 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$555.388 billion (2019 est.)
$518.34 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar - 73.918 (2021 est.)
74.1 (2020 est.)
70.42 (2019 est.)
68.389 (2018 est.)
65.122 (2017 est.)

India - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 3 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 99.5% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 100% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 99.3% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 1,229,387,712,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 9.491 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 5.794 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 432.768 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 75.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 2.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 4.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 4.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 10.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 771,400 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 4,920,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 4.53 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 4,604,900,000 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 4.897 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 1.305 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 653,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 27,734,833,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 61,646,806,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 91.916 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 33,911,973,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 1,380,614,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 2,314,738,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1,574,331,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 615.903 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 124.505 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 23.231 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

India - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 27.45 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 1.15 billion (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: Doordarshan, India's public TV network, has a monopoly on terrestrial broadcasting and operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2020, 130 million households paid for cable and satellite television across India and as of 2018, cable and satellite TV offered over 850 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2020)

Internet country code: .in

Internet users
Total: 644 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 46% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 22.95 million (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2020 est.)

India - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2023 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.2% of GDP (2021 est.)
2.5% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.4% of GDP (2019 est.)

Military and security forces:
Indian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard; Defense Security Corps

Ministry of Home Affairs: Central Armed Police Forces (includes Assam Rifles, Border Security Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, National Security Guards, Sashastra Seema Bal) (2023)

Note 1: the Defense Security Corps provides security for Ministry of Defense sites
Note 2: the Border Security Force (BSF) is responsible for the Indo-Pakistan and Indo-Bangladesh borders; the Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB or Armed Border Force) guards the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan borders
Note 3: the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) includes a Rapid Reaction Force (RAF) for riot control and the Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (COBRA) for counter-insurgency operations 
Note 4: the Assam Rifles are under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs, while operational control falls under the Ministry of Defense (specifically the Indian Army)
Note 5: the Territorial Army (TA) is a military reserve force composed of part-time volunteers who provide support services to the Indian Army; it is a part of Regular Army with the role of relieving the Regular Army from static duties and assisting civil authorities with natural calamities and maintaining essential services in emergencies, as well as providing units for the Regular Army as required

Military service age and obligation: ages vary by service, but generally 16.5-27 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription (2023)
Note 1: in 2022, the Indian Government announced that it would begin recruiting 46,000 men aged 17.5-21 annually to serve on 4-year contracts under a process called the Agnipath scheme; at the end of their tenure, 25% would be retained for longer terms of service, while the remainder would be forced to leave the military, although some of those leaving would be eligible to serve in the Coast Guard, the Merchant Navy, civilian positions in the Ministry of Defense, and in the paramilitary forces of the Ministry of Home Affairs, such as the Central Armed Police Forces and Assam Rifles
Note 2: as of 2023, women made up less than 1% of the Army, about 1% of the Air Force, and about 6% of the Navy 
Note 3: the Indian military accepts citizens of Nepal and Bhutan; descendants of refugees from Tibet who arrived before 1962 and have resided permanently in India; peoples of Indian origin from nations such as Burma, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda, and Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India; eligible candidates from “friendly foreign nations” may apply to the Armed Forces Medical Services 
Note 4: the British began to recruit Nepalese citizens (Gurkhas) into the East India Company Army during the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816), and the Gurkhas subsequently were brought into the British Indian Army; following the partition of India in 1947, an agreement between Nepal, India, and Great Britain allowed for the transfer of the 10 regiments from the British Indian Army to the separate British and Indian armies; six regiments of Gurkhas (aka Gorkhas in India) regiments went to the new Indian Army; a seventh regiment was later added

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Harakat ul-Mujahidin; Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami; Hizbul Mujahideen; Indian Mujahedeen; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - India; Jaish-e-Mohammed; Lashkar-e Tayyiba; al-Qa’ida; al-Qa’ida in the Indian Subcontinent; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)/Qods Force
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in India - Transportation 2023top of page

National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 14 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 164,035,637 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,703,960,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: VT

Airports: 346 (2021)
With paved runways: 253
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 93
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 253
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 93
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 45 (2021)

Pipelines: 17,389 km natural gas, 10, 419 km crude oil, 3,544 liquid petroleum gas, 14,729 km refined products (2020) 9 km condensate/gas, 20 km oil/gas/water (2013) (2020)

Total: 65,554 km (2014)
Narrow gauge: 1,604 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge
Broad gauge: 63,950 km (2014) (39, 329 km electrified)

Total: 6,371,847 km (2021) note: includes 140,995 km of national highways and expressways, 171.039 km of state highways , and 6,059,813 km of other roads
Note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads

Waterways: 14,500 km (2012) (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels)

Merchant marine
Total: 1,810 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 65, container ship 23, general cargo 594, oil tanker 134, other 994

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
Container ports teus: Jawaharal Nehru Port (5,630,000), Mundra (6,660,000) (2021)
Lng terminals import: Dabhol, Dahej, Dhamra, Ennore, Hazira, Kochi, Mundra

India - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalIndia-China: India’s relations with China have been fraught for decades; issues include disputed frontiers, as well as China’s support for Pakistan, India’s key rival, and China’s growing influence in India’s periphery, including in the Indian Ocean; in 2020, the two engaged in the worst bilateral border conflict since the Sino-Indian War of 1962; despite ongoing negotiations, including nearly 20 rounds of military-to-military talks as of 2023, tensions at the disputed border, known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC), remain high, and China holds a reported 580 square miles of territory previously patrolled by India; non-lethal clashes involving hundreds of soldiers from each side occured in December 2022; both countries maintain tens of thousands of troops and heavy weaponry at the LAC, and both continue to improve their infrastructure and military capabilities in the disputed border region 

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 92,131 (Sri Lanka), 72,315 (Tibet/China), 10,064 (Afghanistan) (mid-year 2022); 78,731 (Burma) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2023)
IDPs: 631,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2022)
Stateless persons: 20,330 (2022)

Illicit drugs: India is a source, transit, and destination for illicit narcotics and precursor chemicals; drug abuse in India growing, facilitated by illicit narcotics and the availability of over-the-counter medicines; commonly abused substances in India include heroin, cannabis, and cocaine, with growing use of pharmaceutical drugs in recent years including tramadol, opioids, and MDMA (ecstasy) analogues; largest producer of generic drugs in the world which is also used to produce illicit synthetic drugs such as pharmaceutical opioids, methamphetamine, heroin, MDMA, and ketamine


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