Statistical information Indonesia 2023Indonesia

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Indonesia in the World
Indonesia in the World


Indonesia - Introduction 2023
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The archipelago was once largely under the control of Buddhist and Hindu rulers. By around the 7th century, a Buddhist kingdom arose on Sumatra and expanded into Java and the Malay Peninsula until it was conquered in the late 13th century by the Hindu Majapahit Empire from Java. Majapahit (1290-1527) united most of modern-day Indonesia and Malaysia. Traders introduced Islam in the trade ports around the 11th century, and Indonesians gradually adopted Islam over the next 500 years. The Portuguese conquered parts of Indonesia in the 16th century, but they were ousted by the Dutch (except in East Timor), who began colonizing the islands in the early 17th century. It would be the early 20th century before Dutch colonial rule was established across the entirety of what would become the boundaries of the modern Indonesian state.

Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation.

Indonesia faces a number of issues, including alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Indonesia - Geography 2023
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Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 1,904,569 km²
Land: 1,811,569 km²
Water: 93,000 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,958 km
Border countries: (3) Malaysia 1,881 km; Papua New Guinea 824 km; Timor-Leste 253 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 367 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Note: Indonesia is the World's leading producer of nickel with an output of 1.6 million mt in 2022
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 13% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)
Forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)
Other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 67,220 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Sepik (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,126 km; Fly (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,050 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 23.8 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 9.14 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 189.7 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 2.02 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

Note 1: according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Note 2: Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire; 80% of tsunamis, caused by volcanic or seismic events, occur within the "Pacific Ring of Fire"
Nnote 3: despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon
Note 4: two major food crops apparently developed on the island of New Guinea

Indonesia - People 2023
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Distribution: major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated: 279,476,346 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.76% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 9.4% (2019 est.)

Noun: Indonesian(s)
Adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese); note - more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Major-language samples:
Fakta Dunia, sumber informasi dasar yang sangat diperlukan. (Indonesian)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile: Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest population. It is predominantly Muslim and has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world. The population is projected to increase to as much as 320 million by 2,045 A government-supported family planning program. The total fertility rate (TFR) - the average number of births per woman - from 5.6 in the mid-1960s to 2.7 in the mid-1990s. The success of the program was also due to the social acceptance of family planning, which received backing from influential Muslim leaders and organizations.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 24.22% (male 34,627,270/female 33,066,304)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 95,267,122/female 95,063,200)
65 years and over: 7.68% (2023 est.) (male 9,892,325/female 11,560,125)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 47.6
Youth dependency ratio: 37.6
Elderly dependency ratio: 10
Potential support ratio: 10 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 31.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 30.5 years
Female: 32 years

Population growth rate: 0.76% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 15.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Urban population: 58.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 11.249 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.729 million Bekasi, 3.044 million Surabaya, 3.041 million Depok, 2.674 million Bandung, 2.514 million Tangerang (2023)

Current issues: large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 19.34 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 563.32 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 244.5 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 22.4 years (2017 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 173 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 19.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 71.1 years
Female: 75.7 years

Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 55.5% (2018)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 98.2% of population
Improved rural: 86.8% of population
Improved total: 93.3% of population
Unimproved urban: 1.8% of population
Unimproved rural: 13.2% of population
Unimproved total: 6.7% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 3.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
97.2% of population

rural: 86.5% of population

total: 92.5% of population

Unimproved urban:
2.8% of population

rural: 13.5% of population

total: 7.5% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Southeast Asia; Indonesia is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 6.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 37.6% (2020 est.)
Male: 71.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 3.7% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 17.7% (2018)

Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 96%
Male: 97.4%
Female: 94.6% (2020)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 14 years (2018)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 16.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 15.7%

Indonesia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form: Indonesia
Local long form: Republik Indonesia
Local short form: Indonesia
Former: Netherlands East Indies (Dutch East Indies), Netherlands New Guinea
Etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Jakarta; note - Indonesian lawmakers on 18 January 2022 approved the relocation of the country’s capital from Jakarta to a site on the island of Borneo between Samarinda City and the port city of Balikpapan; Nusantara ("archipelago"), the name of the new capital, is expected to be established in August 2024
Geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
Time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Time zone note: Indonesia has three time zones
Etymology: "Jakarta" derives from the Sanscrit "Jayakarta" meaning "victorious city" and refers to a successful defeat and expulsion of the Portuguese in 1527; previously the port had been named "Sunda Kelapa"

Administrative divisions: 35 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Papua Barat Daya (Southwest Papua), Papua Pegunungan (Papua Highlands), Papua Selatan (South Papua), Papua Tengah (Central Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
Note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

History: drafted July to August 1945, effective 18 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959
Amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly, with at least two thirds of its members present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002

Legal system: civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal; married persons regardless of age

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held on 14 February 2024)
Election results:

: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%

2014: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.15%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 46.85%

Legislative branch
bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of:
Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (575 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)

Regional Representative Council - last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)
House of Representatives - last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held 14 February 2024)

Election results:
Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; composition - men 102, women 34, percent of women 25%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19.3%, Gerindra 12.6%, Golkar 12.3%, PKB 9.7%, Nasdem 9.1%, PKS 8.2%, PD 7.8%, PAN 6.8%, PPP 4.5%, other 9.6%; seats by party - PDI-P 128, Golkar 85, Gerindra 78, Nasdem 59, PKB 58, PD 54, PKS 50, PAN 44, PPP 19; composition - men 454, women 124, percent of women 21.5%; total People's Consultative Assembly percent of women 22.1%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party or PD [Agus Harimurti YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Democratic Party or NasDem [Surya PALOH]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Ahmad SYAIKHU]
United Development Party or PPP [Muhamad MARDIONO]

Note: these parties are those represented in national and regional legislatures; additional parties are represented in only regional legislatures

International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Rosan Perkasa ROESLANI (since 13 January 2022)
In the us chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 775-5,200
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 775-5,236
In the us email address and website:!

In the us consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Sung Y. KIM (since 21 October 2020)
From the us embassy: Jl. Medan Merdeka Selatan No. 3-5, Jakarta 10,110
From the us mailing address: 8,200 Jakarta Place, Washington DC 20,521-8,200
From the us telephone: [62] (21) 5,083-1000
From the us FAX: [62] (21) 385-7,189
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
Note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbols: garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white

National anthem
Name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
Lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
Note: adopted 1945

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 10 (6 cultural, 4 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Borobudur Temple Compounds (c); Komodo National Park (n); Prambanan Temple Compounds (c); Ujung Kulon National Park (n); Sangiran Early Man Site (c); Lorentz National Park (n); Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (n); Cultural Landscape of Bali Province (c); Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto (c); Cosmological Axis of Yogyakarta and its Historic Landmarks (c)

Indonesia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: one of the fastest growing economies and largest in Southeast Asia; upper middle-income country; human capital and competitiveness phase of its 20-year development plan; COVID-19 reversed poverty reduction trajectory; strengthening financial resilience

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$3.246 trillion (2021 est.)
$3.131 trillion (2020 est.)
$3.197 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
3.69% (2021 est.)
-2.07% (2020 est.)
5.02% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 9.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 32.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 20.4% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -19.2% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 13.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 41% (2017 est.)
Services: 45.4% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.42% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 138.119 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.41% (2021 est.)
4.28% (2020 est.)
3.62% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 16.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 15.7%

Population below poverty line: 9.4% (2019 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 37.9 (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 3.4%
Highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $130.872 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $192.97 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
42.92% of GDP (2020 est.)
33.73% of GDP (2019 est.)
33.14% of GDP (2018 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 8.31% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0.39% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 1.06% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$3.459 billion (2021 est.)
-$4.433 billion (2020 est.)
-$30.279 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.56% (2021 est.)
1.92% (2020 est.)
3.03% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$3.459 billion (2021 est.)
-$4.433 billion (2020 est.)
-$30.279 billion (2019 est.)

$246.87 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$178.418 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$200.097 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 22%, United States 11%, Japan 8%, India 6%, Singapore 5% (2021)
Commodities: coal, palm oil, natural gas, iron alloys, stainless steel (2021)

$217.715 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$159.872 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$204.23 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 27%, Singapore 12%, Japan 8%, Thailand 5%, United States 5%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, telephones, natural gas (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$144.908 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$135.916 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$129.186 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$393.252 billion (2019 est.)
$360.945 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 14,308.144 (2021 est.)
14,582.203 (2020 est.)
14,147.671 (2019 est.)
14,236.939 (2018 est.)
13,380.834 (2017 est.)

Indonesia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: (2020) less than 1 million
Electrification-total population: 99.2% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 99.9% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 98.2% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 256,742,190,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 1.553 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 69.065 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 82.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 6.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 842,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 1.649 million bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 204,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 309,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 2.48 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 950,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 79,930 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 591,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 62,612,013,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 38,673,953,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 23,938,060,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 1,408,478,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 563.543 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 267.326 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 209.279 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 86.938 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 29.68 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Indonesia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 8,423,990 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 365,872,608 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 1 public broadcaster, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2019)

Internet country code: .id

Internet users
Total: 167.4 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 62% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 11,722,218 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

Indonesia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.8% of GDP (2023 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2019 est.)

Military and security forces: Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes Marine Corps (Korps Marinir or KorMar)), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)) (2023)
Note 1: in 2014, Indonesia created a Maritime Security Agency (Bakamla) to coordinate the actions of all maritime security agencies, including the Navy, the Indonesian Sea and Coast Guard (Kesatuan Penjagaan Laut dan Pantai, KPLP), the Water Police (Polair), Customs (Bea Cukai), and Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries
Note 2: the Indonesian National Police, which reports directly to the president, includes a paramilitary Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB); following the Bali terror bombing in 2002, the National Police formed a special counterterrorism force called Detachment 88 (Densus or Detasemen Khusus 88 Antiteror); Detachment 88 often works with the TNI's Joint Special Operations Command, which has counterterrorism and counterinsurgency units; the National Police are also bolstered by the KAMRA "People's Security" police auxiliaries

Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women, with selective conscription authorized (men, age 18), but not utilized; 24-month service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers) (2023)
Note: as of 2023, women comprised about 7% of the Indonesian military

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (aka Jemaah Anshorut Daulah); Jemaah Islamiyah
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Indonesia - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 611
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,154,100 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,131,910,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: PK

Airports: 673 (2021)
With paved runways: 186
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 487
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 186
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 487
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 76 (2021)

Pipelines: 1,064 km condensate, 150 km condensate/gas, 11,702 km gas, 119 km liquid petroleum gas, 7,767 km oil, 77 km oil/gas/water, 728 km refined products, 53 km unknown, 44 km water (2013)

Total: 8,159 km (2014)
Narrow gauge: 8,159 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)
Note: 4,816 km operational

Total: 496,607 km (2011)
Paved: 283,102 km (2011)
Unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)

Waterways: 21,579 km (2011)

Merchant marine
Total: 11,015 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 154, container ship 218, general cargo 2,310, oil tanker 700, other 7,633

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
Container ports teus: Tanjung Perak (3,901,215), Tanjung Priok (6,849,227) (2021)
Lng terminals export: Bontang, Tangguh
Lng terminals import: Arun, Lampung, West Java

Indonesia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Indonesia-Australia: all borders have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

Indonesia-Malaysia: territorial disputes resulting from competing interpretations of colonial era documents have prevented a full demarcation of the land border where there are several areas under dispute; negotiations continue; the two countries have not agreed to any EEZ boundaries; disputed maritime areas includes the Ambalat block in the Celebes Sea

Indonesia-Palau: discussions on reaching an agreement on a partial EEZ boundary line continue 

Indonesia-Papua New Guinea:  Papua New Guinea ratified an agreement governing the border in 2023; migrants and separatists crossing the porous 760-kilometer (472-mile) border have complicated diplomatic relations

Indonesia-Philippines:  have ratified EEZ boundary agreements that were initially signed in 2014

Indonesia-Singapore: continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island

Indonesia-Timor Leste: as of 2023, negotiations were ongoing on remaining two segments of the land border under dispute (Bidjael Sunan-Oben and Noel Besi-Citrana) and the maritime borders from Batugade to Atauro and from Atauro to Jaco 

Indonesia-Vietnam: agreed on a continental shelf boundary agreement with Vietnam in 2003 which produced a border around 250 nautical miles long, but the two countries continue to negotiate an agreement regarding EEZ delimitations in the South China Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 5,684 (Afghanistan) (mid-year 2022)
IDPs: 72,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2007 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2022)
Stateless persons: 866 (2022)

Illicit drugs: major transit point and destination for illicit narcotics; a destination for methamphetamine, ecstasy, and other illicit drugs; methamphetamine production facilities within Indonesia 

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