Statistical information Ireland 2023Ireland

Map of Ireland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Ireland in the World
Ireland in the World

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Ireland - Introduction 2023
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Background: Celtic tribes arrived on the island between 600 and 150 B.C. Invasions by Norsemen that began in the late 8th century were finally ended when King Brian BORU defeated the Danes in 1014. Norman invasions began in the 12th century and set off more than seven centuries of Anglo-Irish struggle marked by fierce rebellions and harsh repressions. The Irish famine of the mid-19th century was responsible for a drop in the island's population by more than one quarter through starvation, disease, and emigration. For more than a century afterward, the population of the island continued to fall, only to begin growing again in the 1960s. Over the last 50 years, Ireland's high birthrate has made it demographically one of the youngest populations in the EU.


Ireland - Geography 2023
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Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 70,273 km²
Land: 68,883 km²
Water: 1,390 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 490 km
Border countries: (1) UK 490 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation
Highest point: Carrauntoohil 1,041 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 118 m

Natural resources: natural gas, peat, copper, lead, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 66.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 15.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 50.7% (2018 est.)
Forest: 10.9% (2018 est.)
Other: 23% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 km² (2022)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 990 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 520 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 40 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 52 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: rare extreme weather events

Geography
Note: strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 100 km of Dublin


Ireland - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: population distribution is weighted to the eastern side of the island, with the largest concentration being in and around Dublin; populations in the west are small due to mountainous land, poorer soil, lack of good transport routes, and fewer job opportunities: 5,323,991 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.09% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 13.1% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural)
Adjective: Irish

Ethnic groups: Irish 76.6%, Irish travelers 0.6%, other White 9.9%, Asian 3.3%, Black 1.5%, other (includes Arab, Roma, and persons of mixed backgrounds) 2%, unspecified 2.6% (2022 est.)

Languages: English (official, the language generally used), Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official, spoken by approximately 39.8% of the population as of 2016; mainly spoken in areas along Ireland's western coast known as gaeltachtai, which are officially recognized regions where Irish is the predominant language)

Religions: Roman Catholic 68.3%, Protestant 3.8% (Church of Ireland/Church of England/Anglican/Episcopalian 2.4%, other Protestant 1.4%), Orthodox 2%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 1.4%, other 1.6%, none 15.4%, unspecified 6.6% (2022 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20.39% (male 556,057/female 529,454)
15-64 years: 65.04% (male 1,741,527/female 1,720,989)
65 years and over: 14.57% (2023 est.) (male 360,476/female 415,488)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.2
Youth dependency ratio: 30.5
Elderly dependency ratio: 22.7
Potential support ratio: 4.4 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 39.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 39.4 years
Female: 40.2 years

Population growth rate: 1.09% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 11.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population distribution is weighted to the eastern side of the island, with the largest concentration being in and around Dublin; populations in the west are small due to mountainous land, poorer soil, lack of good transport routes, and fewer job opportunities

Urbanization
Urban population: 64.5% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.270 million DUBLIN (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff; acid rain kills plants, destroys soil fertility, and contributes to deforestation
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 8.2 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 37.71 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 13.67 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 30.9 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 82.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 80.5 years
Female: 84.1 years

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 97% of population
Improved rural: 98.1% of population
Improved total: 97.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 3% of population
Unimproved rural: 1.9% of population
Unimproved total: 2.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 7.1% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.49 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 3 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
97.8% of population

rural: 99.1% of population

total: 98.3% of population

Unimproved urban:
2.2% of population

rural: 0.9% of population

total: 1.7% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 25.3% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 10.91 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 4.92 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 2.88 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.82 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 20.8% (2020 est.)
Male: 22.5% (2020 est.)
Female: 19% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 19 years
Male: 18 years
Female: 19 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 17.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.1%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 18.8%


Ireland - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Ireland
Local long form: none
Local short form: Eire
Etymology: the modern Irish name "Eire" evolved from the Gaelic "Eriu," the name of the matron goddess of Ireland (goddess of the land); the names "Ireland" in English and "Eire" in Irish are direct translations of each other

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital
Name: Dublin
Geographic coordinates: 53 19 N, 6 14 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: derived from Irish dubh and lind meaning respectively "black, dark" and "pool" and which referred to the dark tidal pool where the River Poddle entered the River Liffey; today the area is the site of the castle gardens behind Dublin Castle

Administrative divisions: 28 counties and 3 cities*; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Cork*, Donegal, Dublin*, Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal, Galway, Galway*, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, South Dublin, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from the UK by the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which ended British rule); 6 December 1922 (Irish Free State established); 18 April 1949 (Republic of Ireland Act enabled)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March; note - marks the traditional death date of Saint Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, during the latter half of the fifth century A.D. (most commonly cited years are c. 461 and c. 493); although Saint Patrick's feast day was celebrated in Ireland as early as the ninth century, it only became an official public holiday in Ireland in 1903

Constitution
History: previous 1922; latest drafted 14 June 1937, adopted by plebiscite 1 July 1937, effective 29 December 1937
Amendments: proposed as bills by Parliament; passage requires majority vote by both the Senate and House of Representatives, majority vote in a referendum, and presidential signature; amended many times, last in 2019

Legal system: common law system based on the English model but substantially modified by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts by Supreme Court

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no, unless a parent of a child born in Ireland has been legally resident in Ireland for at least three of the four years prior to the birth of the child
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 4 of the previous 8 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Michael D. HIGGINS (since 11 November 2011)
Head of government: Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Leo VARADKAR (since 16 December 2022)
Cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, approved by the Dali Eireann (lower house of Parliament)
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 October 2018 (next to be held no later than November 2,025); taoiseach (prime minister) nominated by the House of Representatives (Dail Eireann), appointed by the president
Election results:

2018:
Michael D. HIGGINS reelected president; percent of vote - Michael D. HIGGINS (independent) 55.8%, Peter CASEY (independent) 23.3%, Sean GALLAGHER (independent) 6.4%, Liadh NI RIADA (Sinn Fein) 6.4%, Joan FREEMAN (independent) 6%, Gavin DUFFY (independent) 2.2%

2011: Michael D. HIGGINS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Michael D. HIGGINS (Labor) 39.6%, Sean GALLAGHER (independent) 28.5%, Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin) 13.7%, Gay Mitchell (Fine Gael) 6.4%, David Norris (independent) 6.2%, Mary DAVIS (independent) 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Michael D. HIGGINS 56.8%, Sean GALLAGHER 35.5%


Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of:
Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats; 49 members indirectly elected from 5 vocational panels of nominees by an electoral college, 11 appointed by the prime minister
House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (160 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; all Parliament members serve 5-year terms)

Elections:
Senate - last held early on 21-30 May 2020 (next to be held in March 2,025)
House of Representatives - last held on 8 February 2020 (next to be held no later than March 2,025)

Election results:
 
Senate - percent of vote by party - Fianna Fail 35%, Fine Gael 26.7%, Green Party 6.7%, Labor Party 6.7%, Sinn Fein 6.7%, other 1.6%, independent 16.7%; seats by party - Fianna Fail 21, Fine Gael 16, Green Party 4, Labor Party 4, Sinn Fein 4, other 1, independent 10; composition - men 36, women 24, percent of women 40%  
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Fianna Fail 23.8%, Sinn Fein 23.1%, Fine Gael 21.9%, Green Party 7.5%, other 11.8%, independent 11.9%; seats by party - Fianna Fail 38, Sinn Fein 37, Fine Gael 35, Green Party 12, Labor Party 6, Social Democrats 6, PBPS 5, other 2, independent 19; composition as of March 2022 - men 123, women 37, percent of women 23.1%; note - total Parliament percent of women 27.7%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Ireland (consists of the chief justice, 9 judges, 2 ex-officio members - the presidents of the High Court and Court of Appeal - and organized in 3-, 5-, or 7-judge panels, depending on the importance or complexity of an issue of law)
Judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the prime minister and Cabinet and appointed by the president; chief justice serves in the position for 7 years; judges can serve until age 70
Subordinate courts: High Court, Court of Appeal; circuit and district courts; criminal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Aontu [Peadar TOIBIN]
Solidarity-People Before Profit or PBPS [collective leadership]
Fianna Fail [Micheal MARTIN]
Fine Gael [Leo VARADKAR]
Green Party [Eamon RYAN]
Human Dignity Alliance [Ronan MULLEN]
Labor (Labour) Party Ivana BACIK]
Right to Change or RTC [Joan COLLINS]
Sinn Fein [Mary Lou McDONALD]
Social Democrats [Holly CAIRNS]
Socialist Party [collective leadership]
The Workers' Party [collective leadership]


International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Geraldine Byrne NASON (since 16 September 2022)
In the us chancery: 2,234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 462-3,939
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 232-5,993
In the us email address and website: [link]
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Claire D. CRONIN (since 10 February 2022)
From the us embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4
From the us mailing address: 5,290 Dublin Place, Washington DC 20,521-5,290
From the us telephone: [353] (1) 668-8,777
From the us FAX: [353] (1) 688-8,056
From the us email address and website:
ACSDublin@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Ireland: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; officially the flag colors have no meaning, but a common interpretation is that the green represents the Irish nationalist (Gaelic) tradition of Ireland; orange represents the Orange tradition (minority supporters of William of Orange); white symbolizes peace (or a lasting truce) between the green and the orange
Note: similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

National symbols: harp, shamrock (trefoil); national colors: blue, green

National anthem
Name: "Amhran na bhFiann" (The Soldier's Song)
Lyrics/music: Peadar KEARNEY [English], Liam O RINN [Irish]/Patrick HEENEY and Peadar KEARNEY
Note: adopted 1926; instead of "Amhran na bhFiann," the song "Ireland's Call" is often used at athletic events where citizens of Ireland and Northern Ireland compete as a unified team

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Brú na Bóinne - Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne; Sceilg Mhichíl


Ireland - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: strong, export-based EU economy; multinational-business-friendly environment known for resilience, even amid COVID-19 disruptions; real wage growth beyond other OECD members; high livings standards; strong social equity and cohesion; aging labor force

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$515.88 billion (2021 est.)
$454.167 billion (2020 est.)
$427.715 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
13.59% (2021 est.)
6.18% (2020 est.)
5.44% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 34% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 10.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 119.9% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -89.7% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1.2% (2017 est.)
Industry: 38.6% (2017 est.)
Services: 60.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: pharmaceuticals, chemicals, computer hardware and software, food products, beverages and brewing; medical devices

Industrial production growth rate: 20.33% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 2.518 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
6.63% (2021 est.)
5.62% (2020 est.)
4.95% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 17.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.1%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 18.8%

Population below poverty line: 13.1% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 30.6 (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.9%
Highest 10%: 27.2% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $99.784 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $97.713 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
71.58% of GDP (2020 est.)
69.7% of GDP (2019 est.)
75.19% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Taxes and other revenues: 16.51% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$72.22 billion (2021 est.)
-$27.412 billion (2020 est.)
-$44.934 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
2.36% (2021 est.)
-0.33% (2020 est.)
0.94% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$72.22 billion (2021 est.)
-$27.412 billion (2020 est.)
-$44.934 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$677.028 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$569.061 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$502.313 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: United States 28%, Belgium 10%, Germany 10%, UK 9%, China 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)
Commodities: vaccines and cultures, packaged medicines, nitrogen compounds, integrated circuits, scented mixtures, medical instruments (2021)

Imports:
$477.544 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$486.946 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$452.979 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: United Kingdom 31%, United States 16%, Germany 10%, Netherlands 5%, France 5% (2019)
Commodities: aircraft, computers, packaged medicines, refined petroleum, medical cultures/vaccines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$13.247 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$7.463 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$5.733 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$2.829 trillion (2019 est.)
$2.759 trillion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)



Ireland - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 30.627 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 1.913 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 1.761 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 11.43 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 57.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 34.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 3.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 3.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 600 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 159,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 60,300 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 64,970 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 37,040 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 126,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 2.652 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 5.492 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 2.847 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 9.911 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 35.475 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1.43 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 23.08 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 10.965 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 133.674 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Ireland - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 1,497,863 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 5,373,865 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: publicly owned broadcaster Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE) operates 4 TV stations; commercial TV stations are available; about 75% of households utilize multi-channel satellite and TV services that provide access to a wide range of stations; RTE operates 4 national radio stations and has launched digital audio broadcasts on several stations; a number of commercial broadcast stations operate at the national, regional, and local levels (2019)

Internet country code: .ie

Internet users
Total: 4.75 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 95% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 1,516,473 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)


Ireland - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.3% of GDP (2022)
0.3% of GDP (2021)
0.3% of GDP (2020)
0.3% of GDP (2019)
0.3% of GDP (2018)


Military and security forces: Irish Defense Forces (Oglaigh na h-Eireannn): Army, Air Corps, Naval Service, Reserve Defense Forces (2023)
Note: An Garda Siochana (or Garda) is the national police force and maintains internal security under the auspices of the Department of Justice

Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service recruits to the Defence Forces (18-27 years of age for the Naval Service); 18-26 for cadetship (officer) applicants; 12-year service (5 active, 7 reserves) (2023)
Note: as of 2023, women made up about 7% of the military's full-time personnel
Note 2: the Defense Forces are open to refugees under the Refugee Act of 1996 and nationals of the European Economic Area, which include EU member states, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Continuity Irish Republican Army; New Irish Republican Army; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Ireland - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 450
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1.676 million (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 168.71 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: EI

Airports: 40 (2021)
With paved runways: 16
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 24
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 16
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 24
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports

Pipelines: 2,427 km gas (2017)

Railways
Total: 1,688 km (2020) 53 km electrified

Roadways
Total: 99,830 km (2018)
Paved: 99,830 km (2018) (includes 2,717 km of expressways)

Waterways: 956 km (2010) (pleasure craft only)

Merchant marine
Total: 96 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 12, general cargo 34, oil tanker 1, other 49

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Dublin, Shannon Foynes
Cruise ports: Cork (250,000), Dublin (359,966) (2020)
Container ports teus: Dublin (529,563) (2016)
River ports: Cork (Lee), Waterford (Suir)


Ireland - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalIreland-Denmark: Ireland, Iceland, and the UK dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Iceland, Norway, and the Faroe Islands signed an agreement in 2019 extending the Faroe Islands’ northern continental shelf area

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 101,530 (Ukraine) (as of 3 December 2023)
Stateless persons: 7 (2022)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced synthetic drugs; increasing consumption of South American cocaine; minor transshipment point for heroin and cocaine destined for Western Europe; despite recent legislation, narcotics-related money laundering - using bureaux de change, trusts, and shell companies involving the offshore financial community - remains a concern


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