Statistical information Israel 2023Israel

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Israel - Introduction 2023
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Israel has become a regional economic and military powerhouse, leveraging its prosperous high-tech sector, large defense industry, and concerns about Iran to foster partnerships around the world. The State of Israel was established in 1948. The UN General Assembly had proposed to partition the British Mandate for Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state. Arab states rejected the UN plan and were subsequently defeated militarily in the 1948 war that followed the withdrawal of the British on 14 May 1948. Israel was admitted as a member of the UN in 1949 and saw rapid population growth, primarily due to migration from Europe and the Middle East, over the following years. Israel and its Arab neighbors fought wars in 1967 and 1973 and Israel signed peace treaties with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994. Israel took control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the course of the 1967 war, and subsequently administered those territories through military authorities. Israel and Palestinian officials signed interim agreements in the 1990s that created an interim period of Palestinian self-rule in parts of the West Bank and Gaza. Israel withdrew from Gaza in 2005. While the most recent formal efforts between Israel and the Palestinian Authority to negotiate final status issues occurred in 2013-2014, the US continues its efforts to advance peace. Israel signed the US-brokered normalization agreements (the Abraham Accords) with Bahrain, the UAE, and Morocco in 2020 and reached an agreement with Sudan in 2021. Immigration to Israel continues, with more than 73,000 estimated new immigrants, mostly Jewish, in 2022.

The Israeli economy has undergone a dramatic transformation in the last 30 years, led by cutting-edge, high-tech sectors. Offshore gas discoveries in the Mediterranean, most notably in the Tamar and Leviathan gasfields, place Israel at the center of a potential regional natural gas market. In late 2022, a US-brokered agreement between Israel and Lebanon established their maritime boundary, allowing Israel to begin production on additional gasfields in the Mediterranean. However, Israel's economic prosperity is not consistently mirrored in the Israeli public's financial stability. Structural issues such as low labor force participation among religious and minority populations, low workforce productivity, high costs for housing and consumer staples, and high-income inequality, remain a concern for many Israelis and an important consideration for Israeli politicians. Former Prime Minister Benjamin NETANYAHU returned to office in late 2022 continuing his dominance of Israel's political landscape at the head of Israel's most rightwing and religious government. NETANYAHU previously served as premier from 2009 to June 2021, becoming Israel's longest serving prime minister.

Israel - Geography 2023
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Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon

Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Total: 21,937 km²
Land: 21,497 km²
Water: 440 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries
Total: 1,068 km
Border countries: (6) Egypt 208 km; Gaza Strip 59 km; Jordan 327 km; (20 km; are within the Dead Sea) Lebanon 81 km; Syria 83 km; West Bank 330 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

Highest point: Mitspe Shlagim 2,224 m; note - this is the highest named point, the actual highest point is an unnamed dome slightly to the west of Mitspe Shlagim at 2,236 m; both points are on the northeastern border of Israel, along the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range
Lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m
Mean elevation: 508 m

Natural resources: timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 23.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 13.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 6.3% (2018 est.)
Forest: 7.1% (2018 est.)
Other: 69.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,159 km² (2020)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 100 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 1.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 1.78 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes

Note note 1: Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti)
Note note 2: the Malham Cave in Mount Sodom is the world's longest salt cave at 10 km (6 mi); its survey is not complete and its length will undoubtedly increase; Mount Sodom is actually a hill some 220 m (722 ft) high that is 80% salt (multiple salt layers covered by a veneer of rock)
Note note 3: in March 2019, there were 380 Israeli settlements,to include 213 settlements and 132 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, as all were evacuated in 2005 (2019)

Israel - People 2023
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Distribution: population concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba: 9,043,387 (2023 est.) (includes populations of the Golan Heights or Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967)
Note: approximately 236,600 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2021); following the March 2019 US recognition of the Golan Heights as being part of Israel, Gheos World Guid no longer includes Israeli settler population of the Golan Heights (estimated at 23,400 in 2019) in its overall Israeli settler total
Growth rate: 1.56% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 22% (2014 est.)
Below poverty line note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day

Noun: Israeli(s)
Adjective: Israeli

Ethnic groups: Jewish 73.5% (of which Israel-born 79.7%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 14.3%, Africa-born 3.9%, Asia-born 2.1%), Arab 21.1%, other 5.4% (2022 est.)

Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic (special status under Israeli law), English (most commonly used foreign language)
Major-language samples:
ספר עובדות העולם, המקור החיוני למידע בסיסי (Hebrew)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Jewish 73.5%, Muslim 18.1%, Christian 1.9%, Druze 1.6%, other 4.9% (2022 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 25.96% (male 1,200,721/female 1,146,556)
15-64 years: 61.66% (male 2,839,124/female 2,737,054)
65 years and over: 12.38% (2023 est.) (male 506,536/female 613,396)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 66.9
Youth dependency ratio: 47
Elderly dependency ratio: 19.9
Potential support ratio: 5 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 30.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 29.5 years
Female: 30.7 years

Population growth rate: 1.56% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 19.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Urban population: 92.9% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.51% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 4.421 million Tel Aviv-Yafo, 1.174 million Haifa, 970,000 JERUSALEM (capital) (2023)

Current issues: limited arable land and restricted natural freshwater resources; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 19.47 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 65.17 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 13.02 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 27.7 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 3 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 82.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 80.2 years
Female: 84.3 years

Total fertility rate: 2.94 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 8.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.63 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 3 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: 99.3% of population

total: 99.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: 0.7% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Asia; Israel is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 26.1% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 3.07 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.78 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 21.2% (2020 est.)
Male: 28.9% (2020 est.)
Female: 13.5% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97.8%
Male: 98.7%
Female: 96.8% (2011)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 16 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.8% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 8.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 9.2%

Israel - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: State of Israel
Conventional short form: Israel
Local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
Local short form: Yisra'el
Former: Mandatory Palestine
Etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name "Israel" ("He who struggles with God") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Name: Jerusalem; note - the US recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital in December 2017 without taking a position on the specific boundaries of Israeli sovereignty
Geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, Friday before the last Sunday in March; ends the last Sunday in October
Etymology: Jerusalem's settlement may date back to 2,800 B.C.; it is named Urushalim in Egyptian texts of the 14th century B.C.; uru-shalim likely means "foundation of [by] the god Shalim", and derives from Hebrew/Semitic yry, "to found or lay a cornerstone", and Shalim, the Canaanite god of dusk and the nether world; Shalim was associated with sunset and peace and the name is based on the same S-L-M root from which Semitic words for "peace" are derived (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew); this confluence has thus led to naming interpretations such as "The City of Peace" or "The Abode of Peace"

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Dependent areas

Independence: 14 May 1948 (following League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May

History: no formal constitution; some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws, and the Law of Return (as amended)
Amendments: proposed by Government of Israel ministers or by the Knesset; passage requires a majority vote of Knesset members and subject to Supreme Court judicial review; 11 of the 13 Basic Laws have been amended at least once, latest in 2020 (Basic Law: the Knesset)

Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Israel
Dual citizenship recognized: yes, but naturalized citizens are not allowed to maintain dual citizenship
Residency requirement for naturalization: 3 out of the 5 years preceding the application for naturalization
Note: Israeli law (Law of Return, 5 July 1950) provides for the granting of citizenship to any Jew - defined as a person being born to a Jewish mother or having converted to Judaism while renouncing any other religion - who immigrates to and expresses a desire to settle in Israel on the basis of the Right of aliyah; the 1970 amendment of this act extended the right to family members including the spouse of a Jew, any child or grandchild, and the spouses of children and grandchildren

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; 17 years of age for municipal elections

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Isaac HERZOG (since 7 July 2021)
Head of government: Prime Minister Benyamin NETANYAHU (since 29 December 2022)
Cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2,028); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a new government
Election results:
2021: Isaac HERZOG elected president; Knesset vote - Isaac HERZOG (independent) 87, Miriam PERETZ (independent) 26, invalid/blank 7

2014: Reuven RIVLIN elected president in second round; Knesset vote - Reuven RIVLIN (Likud) 63, Meir SHEETRIT (The Movement) 53, other/invalid 4  

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party- list proportional representation vote, with a 3.25% vote threshold to gain representation; members serve 4-year terms)
Elections: last held on 1 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2,026)
Election results: percent by party - Likud 23.4%, Yesh Atid 17.8%, Religious Zionism (electoral alliance of Religious Zionist Party, Jewish Strength, and Noam) 10.8%, National Unity 9.1%, Shas 8.2%, UTJ 5.9%, Yisrael Beiteinu 4.5%, United Arab List 4.1%, Hadash-Ta'al 3.8%, Labor 3.7%, Meretz 3.2%, other 1.6%; seats by party - Likud 32, Yesh Atid 24, Religious Zionism 14, National Unity 12, Shas 11, UTJ 7, Yisrael Beiteinu 6, Hadash-Ta'al 5, United Arab List 5, Labor 4; composition - men 91, women 29, percentage of women 24.2%; note - following the 1 November 2022 election, the Religious Zionism Alliance split into three parties in the Knesset: Religious Zionism 7 seats, Jewish Power (Otzma Yehudit) 6, and Noam 1

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the president, deputy president, 13 justices, and 2 registrars) and normally sits in panels of 3 justices; in special cases, the panel is expanded with an uneven number of justices
Judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the 9-member Judicial Selection Committee, consisting of the Minister of Justice (chair), the president of the Supreme Court, two other Supreme Court justices, 1 other Cabinet minister, 2 Knesset members, and 2 representatives of the Israel Bar Association; judges can serve up to mandatory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: district and magistrate courts; national and regional labor courts; family and juvenile courts; special and Rabbinical courts

Political parties and leaders:
Balad [Sami Abu SHEHADEH]
Blue and White [Benny GANTZ]
Hadash [Ayman ODEH]
Jewish Power (Otzma Yehudit) [Ben GVIR]
Joint Arab List [Ayman ODEH] (alliance includes Hadash, Ta’al, Balad)
Labor Party or HaAvoda [Merav MICHAELI]
Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]
Meretz [Zehava GAL-ON]
National Unity [alliance includes Blue and White and New Hope]
New Hope [Gideon SA'AR]
Noam [Rabbi Dror ARYEH]
Religious Zionism [Bezalel SMOTRICH] (election alliance of Religious Zionist Party, Jewish Power (Otzma Yehudit), and Noam)
Religious Zionist Party [Bezalel SMOTRICH]
Ta'al [Ahmad TIBI]
United Arab List [Mansour ABBAS]
United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Moshe GAFNI] (alliance includes Agudat Israel and Degel HaTorah)
Yamina [Ayelet SHAKED]
Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID]
Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]

International organization participation: BIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN, CICA, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael HERZOG (since 1 December 2021)
In the us chancery: 3,514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 364-5,500
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 364-5,607
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jacob J. LEW (since 5 November 2023)
From the us embassy: 14 David Flusser Street, Jerusalem, 9,378,322
From the us mailing address: 6,350 Jerusalem Place, Washington DC 20,521-6,350
From the us telephone: [972] (2) 630-4,000
From the us FAX: [972] (2) 630-4,070
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Israel: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Star of David or Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag; the basic design resembles a traditional Jewish prayer shawl (tallit), which is white with blue stripes; the hexagram as a Jewish symbol dates back to medieval times
Note: the Israeli flag proclamation states that the flag colors are sky blue and white, but the exact shade of blue has never been set and can vary from a light to a dark blue

National symbols: Star of David (Magen David), menorah (seven-branched lampstand); national colors: blue, white

National anthem
Name: "Hatikvah" (The Hope)
Lyrics/music: Naftali Herz IMBER/traditional, arranged by Samuel COHEN
Note: adopted 2004, unofficial since 1948; used as the anthem of the Zionist movement since 1897; the 1888 arrangement by Samuel COHEN is thought to be based on the Romanian folk song "Carul cu boi" (The Ox Driven Cart)

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 9 (all cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Masada; Old City of Acre; White City of Tel-Aviv - the Modern Movement; Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba; Incense Route - Desert Cities in the Negev; Bahá’i Holy Places; Sites of Human Evolution at Mount Carmel; Caves of Maresha and Bet-Guvrin; Necropolis of Bet She’arim

Israel - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income, technology- and industrial-based economy; highly dense, fast-growing labor force; recent debt spikes; persistent inequality and poverty; significant tariff and regulatory burdens, especially in agriculture; quantitative easing in effect

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$393.861 billion (2021 est.)
$362.632 billion (2020 est.)
$369.494 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
8.61% (2021 est.)
-1.86% (2020 est.)
4.16% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 55.1% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 22.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 20.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 28.9% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -27.5% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.)
Industry: 26.5% (2017 est.)
Services: 69.5% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear

Industrial production growth rate: 6.05% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 4.186 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.05% (2021 est.)
4.33% (2020 est.)
3.8% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.8% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 8.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 9.2%

Population below poverty line: 22% (2014 est.)
Note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 38.6 (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.7%
Highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $139.374 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $154.927 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
72.6% of GDP (2020 est.)
59.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
60.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 21.9% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$21.09 billion (2021 est.)
$22.486 billion (2020 est.)
$14.747 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.49% (2021 est.)
-0.59% (2020 est.)
0.84% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$21.09 billion (2021 est.)
$22.486 billion (2020 est.)
$14.747 billion (2019 est.)

$143.884 billion (2021 est.)
$114.422 billion (2020 est.)
$117.779 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in current year dollars
Partners: United States 27%, China 8%, India 4%, Germany 3%, Ireland 3% (2021)
Partners note: Approximately, 6% of Israel's exports went to the Gaza Strip and West Bank, but official data are not available individually for the Palestinian territories.
Commodities: diamonds, integrated circuits, refined petroleum, medical instruments, packaged medicines, measuring instruments (2021)

$124.578 billion (2021 est.)
$95.977 billion (2020 est.)
$108.784 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in current year dollars
Partners: United States 12%, China 11%, Germany 7.5%, Switzerland 7%, Turkey 6% (2020)
Commodities: diamonds, cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$212.934 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$173.292 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$126.008 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$132.5 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$99.886 billion (2019 est.)
$94.247 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar - 3.23 (2021 est.)
3.442 (2020 est.)
3.565 (2019 est.)
3.591 (2018 est.)
3.6 (2017 est.)

Israel - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 59,192,500,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 6.243 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 18.993 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 93.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 5.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 232,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 232,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 12.7 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 294,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 111,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 98,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 10.474 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 9.442 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 820.508 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 176.017 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 61.092 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 13.653 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 29.416 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 18.023 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 113.273 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Israel - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 3.574 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 12.5 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: the Israel Broadcasting Corporation (est 2015) broadcasts on 3 channels, two in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; the Israeli Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations (2019)

Internet country code: .il

Internet users
Total: 8.01 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 90% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 2,602,079 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2020 est.)

Israel - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
4.5% of GDP (2022 est.)
5% of GDP (2021 est.)
5% of GDP (2020 est.)
5.2% of GDP (2019 est.)
5.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces: Israel Defense Forces (IDF): Ground Forces, Israel Naval Force (IN, includes commandos), Israel Air Force (IAF, includes air defense) (2023)
Note 1: the national police, including the border police and the immigration police, are under the authority of the Ministry of Public Security
Note 2: the Israeli Security Agency (ISA) is charged with combating terrorism and espionage in Israel and the West Bank and Gaza Strip; it is under the authority of the Prime Minister; ISA forces operating in the West Bank fall under the IDF for operations and operational debriefing

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 17 years of age for voluntary military service; Jews and Druze can be conscripted; Christians, Circassians, and Muslims may volunteer; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation is 32 months for enlisted men and about 24 months for enlisted women (varies based on military occupation); officers serve 48 months; Air Force pilots commit to 9 years of service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), age 24 (women) (2023)
Note 1: women have served in the Israeli military since its establishment in 1948; as of 2021, women made up about 35% of IDF personnel; more than 90% of military specialties, including combat specialties, were open to women and more than 3,000 women were serving in combat units; the IDF's first mixed-gender infantry unit, the Caracal Battalion, was established in 2004
Note 2: conscripts comprise about 70% of the IDF active-duty ground forces
Note 3: the IDF recruits non-Israeli Jews and non-Jews with a minimum of one Jewish grandparent, as well as converts to Judaism; each year the IDF brings in about 800-1,000 foreign recruits from around the world

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine; Palestinian Islamic Jihad; HAMAS
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Israel - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 64
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,404,373 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 994.54 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 4X

Airports: 42 (2021)
With paved runways: 33
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 9
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 33
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 9
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 3 (2021)

Pipelines: 763 km gas, 442 km oil, 261 km refined products (2013)

Total: 1,497 km (2021) (2019)
Standard gauge: 1,497 km (2021) 1.435-m gauge

Total: 20,391 km (2021)
Paved: 20,391 km (2021) (includes 449 km of expressways)


Merchant marine
Total: 45 (2022)
By type: container ship 6, general cargo 2, oil tanker 4, other 33

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa
Container ports teus: Ashdod (1,584,000) (2019)
Lng terminals import: Hadera

Israel - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalIsrael-Gaza Strip: Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 12,181 (Eritrea), 5,061 (Ukraine) (2019)
Stateless persons: 35 (2022)

Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center

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