Statistical information Jamaica 2023Jamaica

Map of Jamaica | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Jamaica in the World
Jamaica in the World

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Jamaica - Introduction 2023
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Background: The island - "discovered" by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in the 16th century. The Native Taino, who had inhabited Jamaica for centuries, were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island in 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and coffee. The abolition of slavery in 1834 freed a quarter million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually increased its independence from Britain. In 1958, it joined other British Caribbean colonies in forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica withdrew from the Federation in 1961 and gained full independence in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated with the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, corruption, the COVID-19 pandemic, and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless, many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.


Jamaica - Geography 2023
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Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 77 30 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Area
Total: 10,991 km²
Land: 10,831 km²
Water: 160 km²
Comparative: about half the size of New Jersey; slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf:
200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation
Highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Mean elevation: 18 m

Natural resources: bauxite, alumina, gypsum, limestone
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 41.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 11.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 9.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 21.1% (2018 est.)
Forest: 31.1% (2018 est.)
Other: 27.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 250 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 140 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 110 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 10.82 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes (especially July to November)

Geography
Note: third largest island in the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola); strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal


Jamaica - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: population density is high throughout, but increases in and around Kingston, Montego Bay, and Port Esquivel: 2,820,982 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.09% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 17.1% (2016 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Jamaican(s)
Adjective: Jamaican

Ethnic groups: Black 92.1%, mixed 6.1%, East Indian 0.8%, other 0.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2011 est.)

Languages: English, Jamaican patois

Religions: Protestant 64.8% (includes Seventh Day Adventist 12.0%, Pentecostal 11.0%, Other Church of God 9.2%, New Testament Church of God 7.2%, Baptist 6.7%, Church of God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.5%, Anglican 2.8%, United Church 2.1%, Methodist 1.6%, Revived 1.4%, Brethren 0.9%, and Moravian 0.7%), Roman Catholic 2.2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.9%, Rastafarian 1.1%, other 6.5%, none 21.3%, unspecified 2.3% (2011 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 24.11% (male 346,566/female 333,673)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 914,208/female 942,134)
65 years and over: 10.08% (2023 est.) (male 135,388/female 149,013)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 38
Youth dependency ratio: 28
Elderly dependency ratio: 13.4
Potential support ratio: 7.4 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 30.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 29.7 years
Female: 31.3 years

Population growth rate: 0.09% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 15.8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population density is high throughout, but increases in and around Kingston, Montego Bay, and Port Esquivel

Urbanization
Urban population: 57.4% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.79% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 597,000 KINGSTON (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston from vehicle emissions; land erosion
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 14.83 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 8.23 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 1.08 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 21.2 years (2008 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality ratio: 99 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76 years (2023 est.)
Male: 74.3 years
Female: 77.9 years

Total fertility rate: 2.05 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 98.3% of population
Improved rural: 93.9% of population
Improved total: 96.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 1.7% of population
Unimproved rural: 6.1% of population
Unimproved total: 3.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 6.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.53 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density: 1.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
98.6% of population

rural: 99.4% of population

total: 98.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
1.4% of population

rural: 0.6% of population

total: 1.1% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 24.7% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 3.46 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.66 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.35 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 9.4% (2020 est.)
Male: 15% (2020 est.)
Female: 3.8% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.5% (2018/19)

Education expenditures: 6% of GDP (2021 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
Total population: 88.7%
Male: 84%
Female: 93.1% (2015)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 12 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 13 years (2015)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 26.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 22.1%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 31.4%


Jamaica - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Jamaica
Etymology: from the native Taino word "haymaca" meaning "Land of Wood and Water" or possibly "Land of Springs"

Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital
Name: Kingston
Geographic coordinates: 18 00 N, 76 48 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the name is a blending of the words "king's" and "town"; the English king at the time of the city's founding in 1692 was WILLIAM III (r. 1689-1702)

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Note: for local government purposes, Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated in 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew Corporation

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from the UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1962)

Constitution
History: several previous (preindependence); latest drafted 1961-62, submitted to British Parliament 24 July 1962, entered into force 6 August 1962 (at independence)
Amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage of amendments to "non-entrenched" constitutional sections, such as lowering the voting age, requires majority vote by the Parliament membership; passage of amendments to "entrenched" sections, such as fundamental rights and freedoms, requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament; passage of amendments to "specially entrenched" sections such as the dissolution of Parliament or the executive authority of the monarch requires two-thirds approval by Parliament and approval in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2017

Legal system: common law system based on the English model

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Sir Patrick L. ALLEN (since 26 February 2009); the Jamaican Government, in May 2023, announced plans to transition to a republic and to hold a referendum in 2024 to remain in the Commonwealth or become a republic
Head of government: Prime Minister Andrew HOLNESS (since 3 March 2016)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (21 seats; 13 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and 8 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the opposition party leader; members serve 5-year terms (no term limits) or until Parliament is dissolved)
House of Representatives (63 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms (no term limits) or until Parliament is dissolved)

Elections:
Senate - last full slate of appointments early on 3 September 2020 (next full slate in 2,025)
House of Representatives - last held on 3 September 2020 (next to be held in 2,025)

Election results:
Senate - percent by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition (as of June 2021) - men 13, women 8, percent of women 38.1%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - JLP 57%, PNP 42.8%, independent 0.2%; seats by party - JLP 48, PNP 15; composition (as of June 2021) - men 45, women 18; percent of women 28.6%; note - total Parliament percent of women 31%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of president of the court and a minimum of 4 judges); Supreme Court (40 judges organized in specialized divisions); note - appeals beyond Jamaica's highest courts are referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) rather than to the Caribbean Court of Justice (the appellate court for member states of the Caribbean Community)
Judge selection and term of office: chief justice of the Supreme Court and president of the Court of Appeal appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister; other judges of both courts appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; judges of both courts serve till age 70
Subordinate courts: resident magistrate courts, district courts, and petty sessions courts

Political parties and leaders:
Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Andrew Michael HOLNESS]
Jamaica Progressive Party or JPP [Gilbert Alexander EDWARDS]
People's National Party or PNP [Mark GOLDING]
United Independents' Congress or UIC [Joseph L. PATTERSON]


International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Audrey Patrice MARKS (since 18 January 2017)
In the us chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 452-0036
In the us email address and website:
contactus@jamaicaembassy.org

https://www.embassyofjamaica.org/

In the us consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
In the us consulates: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Concord (MA), Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Richmond (VA), San Francisco, Seattle
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador N. Nickolas PERRY (since 13 May 2022)
From the us embassy: 142 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6
From the us mailing address: 3,210 Kingston Place, Washington DC 20,521-3,210
From the us telephone: (876) 702-6,000 (2018)
From the us FAX: (876) 702-6,348 (2018)
From the us email address and website:
KingstonACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Jamaica: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side); green represents hope, vegetation, and agriculture, black reflects hardships overcome and to be faced, and yellow recalls golden sunshine and the island's natural resources

National symbols: green-and-black streamertail (bird), Guaiacum officinale (Guaiacwood); national colors: green, yellow, black

National anthem
Name: "Jamaica, Land We Love"
Lyrics/music: Hugh Braham SHERLOCK/Robert Charles LIGHTBOURNE
Note: adopted 1962

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Blue and John Crow Mountains


Jamaica - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income Caribbean island economy; ongoing debt restructuring; hurricane-vulnerable economy; high crime, youth unemployment, and poverty; susceptible to commodity shocks from ongoing Russia invasion of Ukraine

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$27.136 billion (2021 est.)
$25.943 billion (2020 est.)
$28.825 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.6% (2021 est.)
-10% (2020 est.)
0.89% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 81.9% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 13.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 30.1% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -47.1% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 21.1% (2017 est.)
Services: 71.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: agriculture, mining, manufacture, construction, financial and insurance services, tourism, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 2.38% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 1.418 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
9.18% (2021 est.)
9.48% (2020 est.)
7.69% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 26.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 22.1%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 31.4%

Population below poverty line: 17.1% (2016 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 35 (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 29.3% (2015)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $4.029 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $4.564 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: 0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
106.28% of GDP (2020 est.)
92.25% of GDP (2019 est.)
102.46% of GDP (2017 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 25.71% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.15% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
$125.275 million (2021 est.)
-$61.433 million (2020 est.)
-$350.949 million (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.86% (2021 est.)
5.23% (2020 est.)
3.91% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$125.275 million (2021 est.)
-$61.433 million (2020 est.)
-$350.949 million (2019 est.)


Exports:
$4.385 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.343 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$5.991 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: United States 46%, Netherlands 9%, Canada 6%, United Kingdom 4&, Russia 3% (2021)
Commodities: aluminum oxide, refined petroleum, aluminum, rums, fruits, nuts, natural gas, sauces and seasonings (2021)

Imports:
$7.414 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$5.911 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$8.317 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: United States 35%, China 13%, Turkey 5%, Trinidad and Tobago 3%, Japan 3% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, natural gas, cars, crude petroleum, iron bars, steel bars (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$4.838 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$3.938 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$3.631 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$13.876 billion (2019 est.)
$13.912 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Jamaican dollars (JMD) per US dollar - 150.79 (2021 est.)
142.403 (2020 est.)
133.312 (2019 est.)
128.872 (2018 est.)
127.965 (2017 est.)



Jamaica - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 3,050,780,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 1.216 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 87.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 1.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 6.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 3,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 61,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 20,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 24,250 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 823 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 30,580 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 693.422 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 667.115 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 10.002 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 177,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 9.276 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 549,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 49.7 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Jamaica - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 446,831 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 2,905,408 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 3 free-to-air TV stations, subscription cable services, and roughly 30 radio stations (2019)

Internet country code: .jm

Internet users
Total: 2.296 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 82% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 385,603 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2020 est.)


Jamaica - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.3% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2018 est.)


Military and security forces: Jamaica Defense Force (JDF): Jamaica Regiment (Ground Forces), Maritime-Air-Cyber Command (includes Coast Guard, Air Wing, Military Intelligence Unit, Special Activities Regiment, and Military Cyber Corps), Support Brigade (logistics, engineers, health service, and military police); Jamaica National Service Corps (JNSC); Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) (2023)
Note 1:
the JCF is the country’s police force; it has primary responsibility for internal security and has units for community policing, special response, intelligence gathering, and internal affairs; both it and the JDF are under the Ministry of National Security 
note 2: the JNSC is a third category of service that military recruits can join as a preparatory phase for future careers; JNSC soldiers receive basic military, vocational, and life skills training; upon completion of 12 months of service, soldiers can continue on with the JDF or the JDF reserves or seek opportunities in other public sector entities such as the JCF, the Department of Correctional Services, the Jamaica Fire Brigade, the Jamaica Customs Agency, or the Passport Immigration and Citizenship Agency


Military service age and obligation: no conscription; 18-23 for voluntary military service (17 with parental consent) for men and women; 18-28 for the reserves; since 2017, the JDF's standard mode of recruitment is to enroll recruits ages 18-23 through the Jamaica National Service Corps (JNSC); in the JNSC, soldiers receive basic military, vocational, and life skills training; upon completion of 12 months of service, soldiers can continue on with the JDF or seek other opportunities with other government agencies (2023)
Note: as of 2022, women made up about 20% of the JDF's uniformed personnel

Terrorist groups


Jamaica - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 0 (2020)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 6Y

Airports: 28 (2021)
With paved runways: 11
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 17
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 11
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 17
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways
Total: 22,121 km (2011) (includes 44 km of expressways)
Paved: 16,148 km (2011)
Unpaved: 5,973 km (2011)

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 36 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 9, oil tanker 1, other 25

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Discovery Bay (Port Rhoades), Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio, Port Esquivel, Port Kaiser, Rocky Point
Cruise ports: Falmouth, Montego Bay, Port Antonio, Ocho Rios,
Container ports teus: Kingston (2,004,302) (2021)


Jamaica - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Jamaica is the largest Caribbean source of marijuana and a transit point for cocaine trafficked from South America to North America and other international markets; criminal gangs in Jamaica, Haiti, and Central America use marijuana for currency to obtain guns or other contraband from criminal entities in Haiti and Central America


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