Statistical information Kazakhstan 2023Kazakhstan

Map of Kazakhstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kazakhstan in the World
Kazakhstan in the World

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Kazakhstan - Introduction 2023
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Ethnic Kazakhs derive from a mix of Turkic nomadic tribes that migrated to the region in the 15th century. The Kazakh steppe was conquered by the Russian Empire in the 18th and 19th centuries, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1925. Repression and starvation caused by forced agricultural collectivization led to more than a million deaths in the early 1930s. During the 1950s and 1960s, the agricultural "Virgin Lands" program led to an influx of settlers (mostly ethnic Russians, but also other nationalities) and at the time of Kazakhstan’s independence in 1991, ethnic Kazakhs were a minority. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs (from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, and the Xinjiang region of China) back to Kazakhstan. As a result of this shift, the ethnic Kazakh share of the population now exceeds two-thirds.
Kazakhstan's economy is the largest in Central Asia, mainly due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include diversifying the economy, attracting foreign direct investment, enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness, and strengthening economic relations with neighboring states and foreign powers.

Kazakhstan - Geography 2023
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Location: Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Oral) River in easternmost Europe

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Total: 2,724,900 km²
Land: 2,699,700 km²
Water: 25,200 km²
Comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 13,364 km
Border countries: (5) China 1,765 km; Kyrgyzstan 1,212 km; Russia 7,644 km; Turkmenistan 413 km; Uzbekistan 2,330 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south

Highest point:
Pik Khan-Tengri 7,010 m
note - the northern most 7,000 meter peak in the World

Lowest point: Qauyndy Oyysy -132 m
Mean elevation: 387 m

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 77.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 8.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 68.5% (2018 est.)
Forest: 1.2% (2018 est.)
Other: 21.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 18,099 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Syr Darya river mouth (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan) - 3,078 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Tarim Basin (1,152,448 km²), Amu Darya (534,739 km²), Syr Darya (782,617 km²), Lake Balkash (510,015 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 4.62 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 4.54 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 15.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 108.41 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty

Note: world's largest landlocked country and one of only two landlocked countries in the world that extends into two continents (the other is Azerbaijan); Russia leases approximately 6,000 km² of territory enclosing the Baikonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2,050

Kazakhstan - People 2023
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Distribution: most of the country displays a low population density, particularly the interior; population clusters appear in urban agglomerations in the far northern and southern portions of the country: 19,543,464 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.9% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 4.3% (2018 est.)

Noun: Kazakhstani(s)
Adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 69.6%, Russian 17.9%, Uzbek 3.3%, Uyghur 1.5%, Ukrainian 1.3%, Tatar 1%, other 5.3% (2022 est.)

Languages: Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
Major-language samples:
Әлемдік деректер кітабы, негізгі ақпараттың таптырмайтын көзі. (Kazakh)

Книга фактов о мире - незаменимый источник базовой информации. (Russian)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)

Demographic profile: Nearly 40% of Kazakhstan’s population is under the age of 25. Like many former Soviet states, Kazakhstan’s total fertility rate (TFR) - the average number of births per woman - decreased after independence amidst economic problems and fell below replacement level, 2.1. However, in the late 2000s, as the economy improved and incomes rose, Kazakhstan experienced a small baby boom and TFR reached 2.5. TFR has since fallen and is now just over 2.1. Mortality rates are also decreasing and life expectancy is rising, signs that Kazakhstan’s demographic transition is progressing. 
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 25.26% (male 2,386,022/female 2,551,575)
15-64 years: 65.29% (male 6,226,792/female 6,533,887)
65 years and over: 9.44% (2023 est.) (male 660,397/female 1,184,791)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 60
Youth dependency ratio: 47.2
Elderly dependency ratio: 12.7
Potential support ratio: 7.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 31.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 29.9 years
Female: 33.5 years

Population growth rate: 0.9% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 17.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: most of the country displays a low population density, particularly the interior; population clusters appear in urban agglomerations in the far northern and southern portions of the country

Urban population: 58.2% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.19% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.987 million Almaty, 1.291 million NUR-SULTAN (capital), 1.155 million Shimkent (2023)

Current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; desertification; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 26.5 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 247.21 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 45.03 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.56 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 28.9 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 13 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73 years (2023 est.)
Male: 68.7 years
Female: 77.7 years

Total fertility rate: 2.59 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 53% (2018)
Note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 93.8% of population
Improved total: 97.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 6.2% of population
Unimproved total: 2.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 3.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.98 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 6.1 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.9% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 99.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.1% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 21% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 3.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 2.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 23.2% (2020 est.)
Male: 39.6% (2020 est.)
Female: 6.7% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2% (2015)

Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.8%
Male: 99.8%
Female: 99.7% (2018)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 16 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 16 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 3.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 3.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 4.3%

Kazakhstan - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
Conventional short form: Kazakhstan
Local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Local short form: Qazaqstan
Former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Etymology: the name "Kazakh" may derive from the Turkic word "kaz" meaning "to wander," recalling the Kazakh's nomadic lifestyle; the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Kazakhstan literally means "Land of the Wanderers"

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Astana
Geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
Time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Time zone note: Kazakhstan has two time zones
the name means "capital city" in Kazakh

Note: on 17 September 2022, Kazakhstan changed the name of its capital city from Nur-Sultan back to Astana; this was not the first time the city had its name changed; founded in 1830 as Akmoly, it became Akmolinsk in 1832, Tselinograd in 1961, Akmola (Aqmola) in 1992, Astana in 1998, and Nur-Sultan in 2019; the latest name change occurred just three and a half years after the city was renamed to honor a long-serving (28-year) former president, who subsequently fell out of favor

Administrative divisions: 17 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 4 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala); Abay (Semey), Almaty (Qonaev), Almaty*, Aqmola (Kokshetau), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Bayqongyr*, Mangghystau (Aqtau), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Shymkent*, Soltustik Qazaqstan [North Kazakhstan] (Petropavl), Turkistan, Ulytau (Zhezqazghan), Zhambyl (Taraz), Zhetisu (Taldyqorghan)
Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 km² enclosing the Baikonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baikonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2,050

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1991)

History: previous 1937, 1978 (preindependence), 1993; latest approved by referendum 30 August 1995, effective 5 September 1995
Amendments: introduced by a referendum initiated by the president of the republic, on the recommendation of Parliament, or by the government; the president has the option of submitting draft amendments to Parliament or directly to a referendum; passage of amendments by Parliament requires four-fifths majority vote of both houses and the signature of the president; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote by more than one half of the voters in at least two thirds of the oblasts, major cities, and the capital, followed by the signature of the president; amended several times, last in 2022

Legal system: civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kazakhstan
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (since 20 March 2019)
Head of government: Prime Minister Alikhan SMAILOV (since 11 January 2022); note - Prime Minister Askar MAMIN resigned on 5 January 2022 in the wake of massive protests of his government that began 2 January 2022 following a sudden, steep rise in gasoline prices
Cabinet: the president appoints ministers based on the prime minister's recommendations; the president has veto power over all appointments and independently appoints the ministers of defense, internal affairs, and foreign affairs
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (prior to September 2022, the president of Kazakhstan could serve up to two terms of 5 years each; the legislation was changed in September 2022, reducing the maximum number of terms to one term of 7 years); election last held on 20 November 2022 (next to be held in 2,029); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Mazhilis
Election results:

: Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kassym-Jomart TOKAYEV (Amanat) 81.3%, Zhiguli DAYRABAEV (Auyl) 3.4%, Qaraqat or Karakat ÄBDEN (KÄQŪA) 2.6%, Meyram KAZHYKEN (Amanat) 2.5%, Nurlan AUYESBAYEV (NSDP) 2.2%, Saltanat TURSYNBEKOVA (QA-DJ) 2.1%, other 5.8%

2019: Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (Amanat) 71%, Amirzhan KOSANOV (Ult Tagdyry) 16.2%, Daniya YESPAYEVA (Ak Zhol) 5.1%, other 7.7%

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan consists of:
Senate (50 seats); 40 members indirectly elected by 2-round majority vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 10 members appointed by decree of the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
Mazhilis (98 seats; 69 members directly elected in a single national constituency by party list proportional representation vote (5% minimum threshold to gain seats) and 29 directly elected in single-seat constituencies to serve 5-year terms

Senate - last held on 14 January 2023 (next to be held in 2,026)
Mazhilis - last held on 19 March 2023 (next to be held in 2,026)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition (as of April 2023) - men 39, women 11, percent of women 22%
Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Amanat (formerly Nur Otan) 53.9%, Auvl 10.9%, Respublica 8.6%, Ak Zhol 8.4%, QHP 6.8%, NSDP 5.2%, Baytak 2.3%, Against all 3.9%; percent of vote by party (single-mandate districts) Amanat (formerly Nur Otan) 75.9%, Independent 24%; seats by party Amanat (formerly Nur Qtan) 62, Auvl 8, Respublica 6, Ak Zhol 6, QHP 5, NSDP 4, Independents 7; composition (as of March 2023) - men 80, women 18, percent of women 18.4%; note - total Parliament percent of women 19.6%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of 44 members); Constitutional Council (consists of the chairperson and 6 members)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the president of the republic on recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council and confirmed by the Senate; judges normally serve until age 65 but can be extended to age 70; Constitutional Council - the president of the republic, the Senate chairperson, and the Mazhilis chairperson each appoints 2 members for a 6-year term; chairperson of the Constitutional Council appointed by the president for a 6-year term
Subordinate courts: regional and local courts

Political parties and leaders:
Ak Zhol (Bright Path) Party or Democratic Party of Kazakhstan Ak Zhol [Azat PERUASHEV]
Amanat Party [Yerlan KOSHANOV] (formerly Nur Otan (Radiant Fatherland))
Baytak (Boundless) Party [Azamatkhan AMIRTAY]
National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Askhat RAKHIMZHANOV]
People's Democratic (Patriotic) Party or Auyl or AHDPP [Ali BEKTAYEV]
People's Party of Kazakhstan or QHP [Yermkhamet YERTYSBAYEV]
Respublica Party [Avdarbek KHODZHANAZAROV]

International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHRC, UNIDO, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Yerzhan ASHIKBAYEV (since 7 July 2021)
In the us chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 232-5,488
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 232-5,845
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel N. ROSENBLUM (since 14 November 2022)
From the us embassy: Rakhymzhan Koshkarbayev Avenue, No. 3, Astana 10,010
From the us mailing address: 2,230 Astana, Washington DC 20,521-2,230
From the us telephone: [7] (7,172) 70-21-00
From the us FAX: [7] (7,172) 54-09-14
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Kazakhstan: a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future

National symbols: golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow

National anthem
Name: "Menin Qazaqstanim" (My Kazakhstan)
Lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV
Note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 5 (3 cultural, 2 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi (c); Petroglyphs at Tanbaly (c); Saryarka - Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan (n); Silk Roads: the Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor (c); Western Tien-Shan (n)

Kazakhstan - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: oil and gas giant, with growing international investment; domestic economy hit hard by COVID-19 disruptions; reforming civil society and improving business confidence; legacy state controls and Russian influence inhibit growth and autonomy

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$496.126 billion (2021 est.)
$475.672 billion (2020 est.)
$487.869 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.3% (2021 est.)
-2.5% (2020 est.)
4.5% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 53.2% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 11.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 22.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 4.8% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 35.4% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -27.1% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 4.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 34.1% (2017 est.)
Services: 61.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 9.248 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.9% (2021 est.)
4.89% (2020 est.)
4.8% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 3.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 3.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 4.3%

Population below poverty line: 4.3% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 27.8 (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 4.2%
Highest 10%: 23.3% (2016)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $29.955 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $41.994 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
26.63% of GDP (2020 est.)
18.48% of GDP (2019 est.)
21.99% of GDP (2018 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 8.32% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.99% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$7.862 billion (2021 est.)
-$7.59 billion (2020 est.)
-$8.282 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
6.75% (2020 est.)
5.25% (2019 est.)
6.02% (2018 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$7.862 billion (2021 est.)
-$7.59 billion (2020 est.)
-$8.282 billion (2019 est.)

$66.132 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$52.355 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$65.919 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 13%, Italy 12%, Russia 10%, Netherlands 7%, France 6%, South Korea 5% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, gold, copper, iron alloys, natural gas (2021)

$49.196 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$46.218 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$52.539 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Russia 34%, China 24% (2019)
Commodities: packaged medicines, natural gas, cars, broadcasting equipment, aircraft (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$34.378 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$35.638 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$28.958 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$159.351 billion (2019 est.)
$163.73 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
tenge (KZT) per US dollar - 425.908 (2021 est.)
412.953 (2020 est.)
382.747 (2019 est.)
344.706 (2018 est.)
326.001 (2017 est.)

Kazakhstan - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 92,133,960,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 2.419 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 1.935 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 25.022 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 88.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 10.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 1,864,900 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 320,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,531,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 500 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 30 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 290,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 105,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 39,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 25.786 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 14.557 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 16.418 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 7.714 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 2.407 trillion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 263.689 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 195.926 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 39.205 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 28.557 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 180.726 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Kazakhstan - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 2,887,900 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 24.323 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: the state owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; there are 96 TV channels, many of which are owned by the government, and 4 state-run radio stations; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operate along with state-run radio stations; recent legislation requires all media outlets to register with the government and all TV providers to broadcast in digital format by 2018; broadcasts reach some 99% of the population as well as neighboring countries (2018)

Internet country code: .kz

Internet users
Total: 17.29 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 91% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 2,620,400 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2020 est.)

Kazakhstan - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.7% of GDP (2022 est.)
1% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces:
Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces

Ministry of Internal Affairs: National Police, National Guard

Committee for National Security (KNB): Border Guard Service (2023)

Note: the National Guard is a gendarmerie type force administered by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but also serves the Ministry of Defense; it is responsible for fighting crime, maintaining public order, and ensuring public safety; other duties include anti-terrorism operations, guarding prisons, riot control, and territorial defense in time of war

Military service age and obligation: all men 18-27 are required to serve in the military for 12-24 months; women may volunteer (2023)
Note: as of 2022, more than 10,000 women served in the Kyrgyz Armed Forces and the National Guard

Terrorist groups

Kazakhstan - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 12 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 84
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,143,797 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 50.22 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: UP

Airports: 96 (2021)
With paved runways: 63
With paved runways civil airports: 18
With paved runways military airports: 5
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 2
With paved runways other airports: 38
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 33
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 63
Civil airports: 18
Military airports: 5
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 2
Other airports: 38
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 33
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 3 (2021)

Pipelines: 658 km condensate, 15,429 km gas (2020), 8,020 km oil (2020), 1,095 km refined products, 1,975 km water (2017) (2020)

Total: 16,636 km (2021)
Broad gauge: 16,636 km (2021) 1.520-m gauge (4,237 km electrified)

Total: 96,167 km (2021)
Paved: 83,813 km (2021)
Unpaved: 12,354 km (2021)

Waterways: 43,983 km (2020) (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River)

Merchant marine
Total: 120 (2022)
By type: general cargo 3, oil tanker 7, other 110

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Caspian Sea - Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev)
River ports: Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk) (Irtysh River)

Kazakhstan - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalKazakhstan-China: in 1998, Kazakhstan and China agreed to split two disputed border areas nearly evenly; demarcation with China completed in 2002

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Stateless persons: 7,558 (2022)

Illicit drugs: part of the "Northern Route," land drug trafficking route from Afghanistan to Russia and Europe; domestic manufacturing of synthetics increasing and domestic drug use trends to synthetic drugs outpacing heroin and cannabis;

Sightseeing Pass

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