Statistical information Kosovo 2023Kosovo

Map of Kosovo | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Kosovo in the World
Kosovo in the World

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Kosovo - Introduction 2023
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Background: The western Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over the region from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. After World War II, Kosovo's present-day boundaries were established when Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (S.F.R.Y.). Due at least in part to discrimination against ethnic Albanians by Belgrade, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence. In 1989, Belgrade instituted a new constitution revoking Kosovo's autonomous status. Kosovo's Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum declaring Kosovo independent. Belgrade undertook repressive measures against the Kosovo Albanians in the 1990s, provoking a Kosovo Albanian insurgency.


Kosovo - Geography 2023
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Location: Southeastern Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia

Geographic coordinates: 42 35 N, 21 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 10,887 km²
Land: 10,887 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundaries
Total: 714 km
Border countries: (4) Albania 112 km; North Macedonia 160 km; Montenegro 76 km; Serbia 366 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December

Terrain: flat fluvial basin at an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m

Elevation
Highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,656 m
Lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim (located on the border with Albania) 297 m
Mean elevation: 450 m

Natural resources: nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 52.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 27.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)
Forest: 41.7% (2018 est.)
Other: 5.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 km²)

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: the 41-km long Nerodimka River divides into two branches each of which flows into a different sea: the northern branch flows into the Sitnica River, which via the Ibar, Morava, and Danube Rivers ultimately flows into the Black Sea; the southern branch flows via the Lepenac and Vardar Rivers into the Aegean Sea


Kosovo - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: population clusters exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina: 1,964,327 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.62% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 17.6% (2015 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Kosovan
Adjective: Kosovan
Note: Kosovo, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective as in Kosovo Albanian, Kosovo Serb, Kosovo minority, or Kosovo citizen

Ethnic groups: Albanians 92.9%, Bosniaks 1.6%, Serbs 1.5%, Turk 1.1%, Ashkali 0.9%, Egyptian 0.7%, Gorani 0.6%, Romani 0.5%, other/unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minorities because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo

Languages: Albanian (official) 94.5%, Bosnian 1.7%, Serbian (official) 1.6%, Turkish 1.1%, other 0.9% (includes Romani), unspecified 0.1%; note - in municipalities where a community's mother tongue is not one of Kosovo's official languages, the language of that community may be given official status according to the 2006 Law on the Use of Languages
Note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minority languages because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo (2011 est.)
Major-language samples:
Libri i fakteve boterore, burimi i pazevendesueshem per informacione elementare (Albanian)

Knjiga svetskih činjenica, neophodan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Serbian)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Muslim 95.6%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Orthodox 1.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)
Note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minorities because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 23.1% (male 235,379/female 218,359)
15-64 years: 68.75% (male 706,495/female 643,982)
65 years and over: 8.15% (2023 est.) (male 69,676/female 90,436)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 46.9
Youth dependency ratio: 32.3
Elderly dependency ratio: 14.6
Potential support ratio: 6.9 (2021)

Median age
Total: 31.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 31.3 years
Female: 32 years

Population growth rate: 0.62% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 14.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population clusters exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina

Urbanization

Major urban areas
Population: 218,782 PRISTINA (capital) (2020)

Environment
Current issues: air pollution (pollution from power plants and nearby lignite mines take a toll on people's health); water scarcity and pollution; land degradation

Air pollutants
Carbon dioxide emissions: 8.94 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 0.54 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 23.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 69.9 years
Female: 74.5 years

Total fertility rate: 1.88 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: NA
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: NA
Unimproved urban: NA
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: NA

Current health expenditure: NA

Physicians density: NA

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
NA

rural: NA

total: NA

Unimproved urban:
NA

rural: NA

total: NA


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: NA

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 48.8% (2020 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 44.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 57.3%


Kosovo - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kosovo
Conventional short form: Kosovo
Local long form: Republika e Kosoves (Albanian)/ Republika Kosovo (Serbian)
Local short form: Kosove (Albanian)/ Kosovo (Serbian)
Etymology: name derives from the Serbian "kos" meaning "blackbird," an ellipsis (linguistic omission) for "kosove polje" or "field of the blackbirds"

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital
Name: Pristina (Prishtine, Prishtina)
Geographic coordinates: 42 40 N, 21 10 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: the name may derive from a Proto-Slavic word reconstructed as "pryshchina," meaning "spring (of water)"

Administrative divisions: 38 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna (Albanian); opstine, singular - opstina (Serbian)); Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Gllogovc (Glogovac), Gracanice (Gracanica), Hani i Elezit (Deneral Jankovic), Istog (Istok), Junik, Kacanik, Kamenice (Kamenica), Kline (Klina), Kllokot (Klokot), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve (Malisevo), Mamushe (Mamusa), Mitrovice e Jugut (Juzna Mitrovica) [South Mitrovica], Mitrovice e Veriut (Severna Mitrovica) [North Mitrovica], Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Partesh (Partes), Peje (Pec), Podujeve (Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Ranillug (Ranilug), Shterpce (Strpce), Shtime (Stimlje), Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecan

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 February 2008 (from Serbia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 February (2008)

Constitution
History: previous 1974, 1990; latest (postindependence) draft finalized 2 April 2008, signed 7 April 2008, ratified 9 April 2008, entered into force 15 June 2008; note - amendment 24, passed by the Assembly in August 2015, established the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Institution, referred to as the Kosovo Specialist Chamber or "Specialist Court," to try war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other crimes under Kosovo law committed during and immediately after the Kosovo War (1998-2000)
Amendments: proposed by the government, by the president of the republic, or by one fourth of Assembly deputies; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, including two-thirds majority vote of deputies representing non-majority communities, followed by a favorable Constitutional Court assessment; amended several times, last in 2020

Legal system: civil law system; note - the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) retained limited executive powers within the Kosovo judiciary for complex cases from 2008 to 2018

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kosovo
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (since 4 April 2021)
Head of government: Prime Minister Albin KURTI (since 22 March 2021)
Cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Assembly
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly for a 5-year term; if a candidate does not attain a two-thirds threshold in the first two ballots, the candidate winning a simple majority vote in the third ballot is elected (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3-4 April 2021 (next to be held in 2,026); prime minister indirectly elected by the Assembly
Election results:

2021: 
Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu elected president in third ballot; Assembly vote - Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (Guxo!) 71 votes; Albin KURTI (LVV) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 67 for, 30 against

2016: Hashim THACI elected president in third ballot; Assembly vote - Hashim THACI (PDK) 71 votes; Ramush HARADINAJ (AAK) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 61 for


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi i Kosoves/Skupstina Kosova (120 seats; 100 members directly elected by open-list proportional representation vote with 20 seats reserved for ethnic minorities - 10 for Serbs and 10 for other ethnic minorities; members serve 4-year terms)
Elections: last held on 14 February 2021 (next to be held in 2,025)
Election results: percent of vote by party - LVV 50%, PDK 16.9%, LDK 12.7%, AAK 7.1%, Serb List 5.1%, other 8.2%; seats by party - LVV 58, PDK 19, LDK 15, Serb List 10, AAK 8, other 10; composition as of December 2021 - men 79, women 41, percent of women 34.2%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges and organized into Appeals Panel of the Kosovo Property Agency and Special Chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Judicial Council, a 13-member independent body staffed by judges and lay members, and also responsible for overall administration of Kosovo's judicial system; judges appointed by the president of the Republic of Kosovo; judges appointed until mandatory retirement age; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Assembly and appointed by the president of the republic to serve single, 9-year terms
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeals (organized into 4 departments: General, Serious Crime, Commercial Matters, and Administrative Matters); Basic Court (located in 7 municipalities, each with several branches)
Note: in August 2015, the Kosovo Assembly approved a constitutional amendment that established the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Judicial Institution, also referred to as the Kosovo Specialist Chambers or "Special Court"; the court, located at the Hague in the Netherlands, began operating in late 2016 and has jurisdiction to try crimes against humanity, war crimes, and other crimes under Kosovo law that occurred in the 1998-2000 period

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]
Ashkali Party for Integration or PAI [Bekim ARIFI]
Civic Initiative for Freedom, Justice, and Survival [Milan DABIC]
Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Lumir ABDIXHIKU]
Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Memli KRASNIQI]
New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Elbert KRASNIQI]
New Democratic Party or NDS [Emilja REDZEPI]
Progressive Movement of Kosovar Roma or LPRK [Erxhan GALJUSI]
Romani Initiative [Gazmend SALIJEVCI]
Self-Determination Movement (Lëvizja Vetevendosje or Vetevendosie) or LVV or VV [Albin KURTI]
Serb List or SL [Goran RAKIC]
Social Democratic Union or SDU [Duda BALJE]
Turkish Democratic Party of Kosovo or KDTP [Fikrim DAMKA]
Unique Gorani Party or JGP [Adem HODZA]
Vakat Coalition or VAKAT [Bahrim SABANI]


International organization participation: IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF (observer)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ilir DUGOLLI (since 13 January 2022)
In the us chancery: 3,612 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, D.C. 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 450-2,130
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 735-0609
In the us email address and website:
embassy.usa@rks-gov.net

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey M. HOVENIER (since 10 January 2022)
From the us embassy: Arberia/Dragodan, Rr. 4 KORRIKU Nr. 25, Pristina
From the us mailing address: 9,520 Pristina Place, Washington DC 20,521-9,520
From the us telephone: [383] 38-59-59-3,000
From the us FAX: [383] 38-604-890
From the us email address and website:
PristinaACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Kosovo: centered on a dark blue field is a gold-colored silhouette of Kosovo surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars arrayed in a slight arc; each star represents one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks
Note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Cyprus is the other

National symbols: six, five-pointed, white stars; national colors: blue, gold, white

National anthem
Name: Europe
Lyrics/music: no lyrics/Mendi MENGJIQI
Note: adopted 2008; Kosovo chose to exclude lyrics in its anthem so as not to offend the country's minority ethnic groups

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Medieval Monuments in Kosovo


Kosovo - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: small-but-growing European economy; non-EU member but unilateral euro user; very high unemployment, especially youth; vulnerable reliance on diaspora tourism services, curtailed by COVID-19 disruptions; unclear public loan portfolio health

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$21.226 billion (2021 est.)
$19.166 billion (2020 est.)
$20.247 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
10.75% (2021 est.)
-5.34% (2020 est.)
4.76% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 84.3% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 13.6% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 29% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0% (2016 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -53.8% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 11.9% (2017 est.)
Industry: 17.7% (2017 est.)
Services: 70.4% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: mineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7.76% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 500,300 (2017 est.)
Note: includes those estimated to be employed in the gray economy
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
30.5% (2017 est.)
27.5% (2016 est.)

Note: Kosovo has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 48.8% (2020 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 44.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 57.3%

Population below poverty line: 17.6% (2015 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 29 (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 3.8%
Highest 10%: 22% (2015 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $1.951 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $2.547 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -2.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 29% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.31% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year

Current account balance:
-$818.351 million (2021 est.)
-$541.106 million (2020 est.)
-$447.233 million (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
3.35% (2021 est.)
0.2% (2020 est.)
2.68% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$818.351 million (2021 est.)
-$541.106 million (2020 est.)
-$447.233 million (2019 est.)


Exports:
$3.138 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.687 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.312 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 16%, Albania 15%, North Macedonia 12%, Germany 8%, Italy 8% (2021)
Commodities: mattress materials, iron alloys, metal piping, scrap iron, building plastics, mineral water, seating (2021)

Imports:
$6.128 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.187 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.454 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 13%, Turkey 13%, China 10%, Serbia 7%, Italy 6% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, cars, iron rods, electricity, cigars, packaged medicines (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.244 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$965.832 million (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$2.388 billion (2019 est.)
$2.409 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.845 (2021 est.)
0.877 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Note:: Kosovo, which is neither an EU member state nor a party to a formal EU monetary agreement, uses the euro as its de facto currency


Kosovo - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 4,860,740,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 2.715 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 2.572 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 1.424 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 95.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Refined petroleum consumption: 12,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 192 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 14,040 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 8.009 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 6.1 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 1.909 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 51.462 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Kosovo - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 383,763 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2022 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 1,777,859 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98 (2022 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code:
.xk; note - assigned as a temporary code under UN Security Council resolution 1244/99

 


Internet users
Total: 1,756,300 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 91% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Kosovo - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2022 est.)
2% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2018 est.)


Military and security forces: Kosovo Security Force (KSF; Forca e Sigurisë së Kosovës or FSK): Land Force, National Guard (2023)
Note: the Kosovo Police are under the Ministry of Internal Affairs

Military service age and obligation: any citizen of Kosovo over the age of 18 is eligible to serve in the Kosovo Security Force; upper age for enlisting is 30 for officers, 25 for other ranks, although these may be waived for recruits with key skills considered essential for the KSF (2023)

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix T


Kosovo - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 0 (2020)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: Z6

Airports: 6 (2021)
With paved runways: 3
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 3
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 3
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 3
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 2 (2021)

Pipelines

Railways
Total: 437 km (2020)

Roadways
Total: 2,012 km (2015)
Paved: 1,921 km (2015) (includes 78 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 91 km (2015)

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Kosovo - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalKosovo-Albania: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs: 16,000 (primarily ethnic Serbs displaced during the 1998-1999 war fearing reprisals from the majority ethnic-Albanian population; a smaller number of ethnic Serbs, Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians fled their homes in 2004 as a result of violence) (2022)
Note: 9,011 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2023)

Illicit drugs


Numa


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