Statistical information Lesotho 2023Lesotho

Map of Lesotho | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Lesotho - Introduction 2023
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Background: Paramount chief MOSHOESHOE I consolidated what would become Basutoland in the early 19th century and made himself king in 1822. Continuing encroachments by Dutch settlers from the neighboring Orange Free State caused the king to enter into an 1868 agreement with the UK by which Basutoland became a British protectorate, and after 1884, a crown colony. Upon independence in 1966, the country was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho. The Basotho National Party ruled the country during its first two decades. King MOSHOESHOE II was exiled in 1990 but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995 and subsequently succeeded by his son, King LETSIE III, in 1996. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. In 1998, violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Batswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002, but the National Assembly elections in 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties disputed how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly. In 2012, competitive elections involving 18 parties saw Prime Minister Motsoahae Thomas THABANE form a coalition government - the first in the country's history - that ousted the 14-year incumbent, Pakalitha MOSISILI, who peacefully transferred power the following month. MOSISILI returned to power in snap elections in February 2015 after the collapse of THABANE’s coalition government and an alleged attempted military coup. In June 2017, THABANE returned to become prime minister but stepped down in May 2020 after being implicated in his estranged wife’s murder. He was succeeded by Moseketsi MAJORO. In October 2022, Ntsokoane Samuel MATEKANE was inaugurated as prime minister and head of a three-party coalition featuring his Revolution for Prosperity (RFP), then Monyane MOLELEKI-led Alliance of Democrats (AD), and the Selibe MOCHOBOROANE-led Movement for Economic Change (MEC).

Lesotho - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 29 30 S, 28 30 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 30,355 km²
Land: 30,355 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries
Total: 1,106 km
Border countries: (1) South Africa 1,106 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains

Highest point: Thabana Ntlenyana 3,482 m
Lowest point: junction of the Orange and Makhaleng Rivers 1,400 m
Mean elevation: 2,161 m

Natural resources: water, agricultural and grazing land, diamonds, sand, clay, building stone
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 76.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 10.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 65.9% (2018 est.)
Forest: 1.5% (2018 est.)
Other: 22.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 12 km² (2013)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Orange river source (shared with South Africa and Namibia [m]) - 2,092 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: Orange (941,351 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 3.8 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 3.02 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Note: landlocked, an enclave of (completely surrounded by) South Africa; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 m above sea level

Lesotho - People 2023
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Distribution: relatively higher population density in the western half of the nation, with the capital of Maseru, and the smaller cities of Mafeteng, Teyateyaneng, and Leribe attracting the most people as shown in this [link]: 2,210,646 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.76% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 49.7% (2017 est.)

Noun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)
Adjective: Basotho

Ethnic groups: Sotho 99.7%, other 0.3% (includes Kwena, Nguni (Hlubi and Phuthi), Zulu)

Languages: Sesotho (official) (southern Sotho), English (official), Phuthi, Xhosa, Zulu

Religions: Protestant 47.8% (Pentecostal 23.1%, Lesotho Evangelical 17.3%, Anglican 7.4%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, other Christian 9.1%, non-Christian 1.4%, none 2.3% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile: Lesotho faces great socioeconomic challenges. Almost half of its population lives below the poverty line as of 2017, and the country’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is the second highest in the world as of 2021. In addition, Lesotho is a small, mountainous, landlocked country with little arable land, leaving its population vulnerable to food shortages and reliant on remittances. Lesotho’s persistently high infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have been increasing during the last decade, according to the last two Demographic and Health Surveys. Despite these significant shortcomings, Lesotho has made good progress in education; it is on-track to achieve universal primary education and has one of the highest adult literacy rates in Africa.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 32.4% (male 360,327/female 355,863)
15-64 years: 62.21% (male 688,373/female 686,911)
65 years and over: 5.39% (2023 est.) (male 44,313/female 74,859)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 62.1
Youth dependency ratio: 55.3
Elderly dependency ratio: 6.8
Potential support ratio: 14.7 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 23.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 23.2 years
Female: 24.2 years

Population growth rate: 0.76% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: relatively higher population density in the western half of the nation, with the capital of Maseru, and the smaller cities of Mafeteng, Teyateyaneng, and Leribe attracting the most people as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 30.4% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 202,000 MASERU (capital) (2018)

Current issues: population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls, stores, and redirects water to South Africa
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 17.6 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 2.51 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 2.56 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 20.9 years (2014 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 566 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 52.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 41.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 59.9 years (2023 est.)
Male: 57.9 years
Female: 62 years

Total fertility rate: 2.88 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 64.9% (2018)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 95.7% of population
Improved rural: 77.2% of population
Improved total: 82.6% of population
Unimproved urban: 4.3% of population
Unimproved rural: 22.8% of population
Unimproved total: 17.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 11.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
93.6% of population

rural: 62.4% of population

total: 71.4% of population

Unimproved urban:
6.4% of population

rural: 37.6% of population

total: 28.6% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: intermediate (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 16.6% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 3.56 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.98 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.44 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.31 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.82 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 24.3% (2020 est.)
Male: 43.1% (2020 est.)
Female: 5.4% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 10.5% (2018)

Education expenditures: 8.7% of GDP (2021 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 81%
Male: 72.9%
Female: 88.8% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 13 years (2017)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 37.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 32.8% NA
Rate ages 15 24 female: 43.8% NA

Lesotho - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
Conventional short form: Lesotho
Local long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
Local short form: Lesotho
Former: Basutoland
Etymology: the name translates as "Land of the Sesotho Speakers"

Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Name: Maseru
Geographic coordinates: 29 19 S, 27 29 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: in the Sesotho language the name means "[place of] red sandstones"

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 October 1966 (from the UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 October (1966)

History: previous 1959, 1967; latest adopted 2 April 1993 (effectively restoring the 1967 version)
Amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions, including fundamental rights and freedoms, sovereignty of the kingdom, the office of the king, and powers of Parliament, requires a majority vote by the National Assembly, approval by the Senate, approval in a referendum by a majority of qualified voters, and assent of the king; passage of amendments other than those specified provisions requires at least a two-thirds majority vote in both houses of Parliament; amended several times, last in 2011

Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile
Head of government: Prime Minister Ntsokoane Samuel MATEKANE (28 October 2022)
Cabinet: consists of the prime minister, appointed by the King on the advice of the Council of State, the deputy prime minister, and 18 other ministers; the prime minister is the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the National Assembly 
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary, but under the terms of the constitution that came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law, the College of Chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, to determine next in line of succession, or to serve as regent in the event that a successor is not of mature age

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (33 seats; 22 principal chiefs and 11 other senators nominated by the king with the advice of the Council of State, a 13-member body of key government and non-government officials; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly (120 seats; 80 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 40 elected through proportional representation; members serve 5-year terms)

Senate - last appointed by the king in November 2022 (next to be appointed 2,028)
National Assembly - last held on 7 October 2022 (next to be held in February 2,028)

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, such number of justices of appeal as set by Parliament, and the Chief Justice and the puisne judges of the High Court ex officio); High Court (consists of the chief justice and such number of puisne judges as set by Parliament); note - both the Court of Appeal and the High Court have jurisdiction in constitutional issues
Judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal president and High Court chief justice appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; puisne judges appointed by the monarch on advice of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body of judicial officers and officials designated by the monarch; judges of both courts can serve until age 75
Subordinate courts: Magistrate Courts; customary or traditional courts; military courts

Political parties and leaders:
All Basotho Convention or ABC [Nkaku KABI]
Alliance of Democrats or AD [Ntoi RAPPA]
Basotho Action Party or BAP [Nqosa MAHAO]
Basotho National Party or BNP [Machesetsa MOFOMOBE]
Democratic Congress or DC [Mathibeli MOKHOTHU]
Democratic Party of Lesotho or DPL [Limpho TAU]
Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Mothetjoa METSING]
Lesotho People's Congress or LPC [Moipone PIET]
Movement of Economic Change or MEC [Selibe MOCHOBOROANE]
National Independent Party or NIP [Kimetso MATHABA]
Popular Front for Democracy of PFD [Lekhetho RAKUOANE]
Reformed Congress of Lesotho or RCL [Keketso RANTSO]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Tumisang MOSOTHO (since 16 September 2022)
In the us chancery: 2,511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 797-5,533
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 234-6,815
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Maria E. BREWER (since 10 March 2022)
From the us embassy: 254 Kingsway Avenue, Maseru
From the us mailing address: 2,340 Maseru Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,340
From the us telephone: [266] 22,312,666
From the us FAX: [266] 22,310,116
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Lesotho: three horizontal stripes of blue (top), white, and green in the proportions of 3:4:3; the colors represent rain, peace, and prosperity respectively; centered in the white stripe is a black mokorotlo, a traditional Basotho straw hat and national symbol; the redesigned flag was unfurled in October 2006 to celebrate 40 years of independence

National symbols: mokorotio (Basotho hat); national colors: blue, white, green, black

National anthem
Name: "Lesotho fatse la bo ntat'a rona" (Lesotho, Land of Our Fathers)
Lyrics/music: Francois COILLARD/Ferdinand-Samuel LAUR
Note: adopted 1967; music derives from an 1823 Swiss songbook

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Maloti-Drakensberg Park

Lesotho - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: lower middle-income economy surrounded by South Africa; environmentally fragile and politically unstable; key infrastructure and renewable energy investments; dire poverty; urban job and income losses due to COVID-19; systemic corruption

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$5.236 billion (2021 est.)
$5.167 billion (2020 est.)
$5.638 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
1.35% (2021 est.)
-8.36% (2020 est.)
0.93% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 69.2% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 26.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 31.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -13.4% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 40.8% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -54.4% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5.8% (2016 est.)
Industry: 39.2% (2016 est.)
Services: 54.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts, construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 8.52% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 955,600 (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
24.6% (2021 est.)
24.56% (2020 est.)
22.44% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 37.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 32.8% NA
Rate ages 15 24 female: 43.8% NA

Population below poverty line: 49.7% (2017 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income:
44.9 (2017 est.)

56 (1986-87)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1%
Highest 10%: 39.4% (2003)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.054 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $1.21 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
33.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 18.47% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 3.34% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
-$90.886 million (2021 est.)
-$18.211 million (2020 est.)
-$72.308 million (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
6.05% (2021 est.)
4.98% (2020 est.)
5.19% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$90.886 million (2021 est.)
-$18.211 million (2020 est.)
-$72.308 million (2019 est.)

$1.08 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$902.123 million (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.093 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 29%, Belgium 26%, South Africa 25%, Switzerland 6% (2019)
Commodities: diamonds, clothing and apparel, wool, low-voltage protection equipment, wheat flours (2021)

$2.221 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.98 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.23 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: South Africa 85%, China 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, clothing and apparel, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, poultry meats (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$774.095 million (31 December 2019 est.)
$728.528 million (31 December 2018 est.)
$657.668 million (31 December 2017 est.)

Debt external:
$868 million (2019 est.)
$834 million (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
maloti (LSL) per US dollar - 14.779 (2021 est.)
16.459 (2020 est.)
14.448 (2019 est.)
13.234 (2018 est.)
13.324 (2017 est.)

Lesotho - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 1 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 50.3% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 80.6% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 37.7% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 912.8 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 541.7 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 74,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 99.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 5,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 5,118 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 736,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 736,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 7.823 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Lesotho - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 6,744 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 1,821,374 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station and 2 state-owned radio stations; most private broadcast media transmitters are connected to government radio signal towers; satellite TV subscription service available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters obtainable (2019)

Internet country code: .ls

Internet users
Total: 1.104 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 48% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 5,060 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.2 (2020 est.)

Lesotho - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces: Lesotho Defense Force (LDF): Army (includes Air Wing) (2023)
Note: the Lesotho Mounted Police Service is responsible for internal security and reports to the Minister of Local Government, Chieftainship, Home Affairs and Police

Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service for both men and women (women can serve in combat arms); no conscription (2023)

Terrorist groups

Lesotho - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 7P

Airports: 24 (2021)
With paved runways: 3
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 21
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 3
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 21
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control




Total: 5,940 km (2011)
Paved: 1,069 km (2011)
Unpaved: 4,871 km (2011)


Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Lesotho - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalLesotho-South Africa: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, as well as Mozambique and, Zimbabwe, to assist with controlling cross-border smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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