Statistical information Libya 2023Libya

Map of Libya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Libya in the World
Libya in the World

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Libya - Introduction 2023
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Background: Berbers have inhabited central north Africa since ancient times, but the region has been settled and ruled by Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Persians, Egyptians, Romans, and Vandals. In the 7th century, Islam spread through the region; in the mid-16th century, Ottoman rule began. The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.

Libya - Geography 2023
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Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 1,759,540 km²
Land: 1,759,540 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries
Total: 4,339 km
Border countries: (6) Algeria 989 km; Chad 1,050 km; Egypt 1,115 km; Niger 342 km; Sudan 382 km; Tunisia 461 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions

Highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
Mean elevation: 423 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 8.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 7.6% (2018 est.)
Forest: 0.1% (2018 est.)
Other: 91.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,700 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²: Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Chad (2,497,738 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 700 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 280 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 4.85 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 700 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms

Note note 1: more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
Note note 2: the volcano Waw an Namus lies in south central Libya in the middle of the Sahara; the caldera is an oasis - the name means "oasis of mosquitoes" - containing several small lakes surrounded by vegetation and hosting various insects and a large diversity of birds

Libya - People 2023
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Distribution: well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water as shown in this [link]: 7,252,573 (2023 est.)
Note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)
Growth rate: 1.54% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line

Noun: Libyan(s)
Adjective: Libyan

Ethnic groups: Amazigh and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Italian, Maltese, Pakistani, Tunisian, and Turkish)

Languages: Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Tamazight (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
Major-language samples:
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Muslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist <1%, Hindu <1%, Jewish <1%, folk religion <1%, other <1%, unaffiliated <1% (2020 est.)
Note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims

Demographic profile: Despite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya’s involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of Sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries. Although Sub-Saharan Africans provided a cheap labor source, they were poorly treated and were subjected to periodic mass expulsions.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 32.81% (male 1,213,850/female 1,166,039)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 2,340,685/female 2,213,782)
65 years and over: 4.39% (2023 est.) (male 143,737/female 174,480)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 50.8
Youth dependency ratio: 43.5
Elderly dependency ratio: 7.3
Potential support ratio: 13.8 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 26.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 26.1 years
Female: 26.1 years

Population growth rate: 1.54% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 20.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 3.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 81.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.183 million TRIPOLI (capital), 984,000 Misratah, 859,000 Benghazi (2023)

Current issues: desertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities; water pollution is a significant problem; the combined impact of sewage, oil byproducts, and industrial waste threatens Libya's coast and the Mediterranean Sea
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 29.84 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 50.56 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 45.76 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio: 72 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.4 years (2023 est.)
Male: 75.2 years
Female: 79.8 years

Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 27.7% (2014)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: NA
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: 99.9% of population
Unimproved urban: NA
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: NA

Physicians density: 2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density: 3.2 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:

rural: NA

total: 99.3% of population

Unimproved urban:

rural: NA

total: 0.7% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 32.5% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11.7% (2014)

Education expenditures: NA

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 91%
Male: 96.7%
Female: 85.6% (2015)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 50.5% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 41.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 73.8%

Libya - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: State of Libya
Conventional short form: Libya
Local long form: Dawiat Libiya
Local short form: Libiya
Etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.

Government type: in transition

Name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
Geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: originally founded by the Phoenicians as Oea in the 7th century B.C., the city changed rulers many times over the successive centuries; by the beginning of the 3rd century A.D. the region around the city was referred to as Regio Tripolitana by the Romans, meaning "region of the three cities" - namely Oea (i.e., modern Tripoli), Sabratha (to the west), and Leptis Magna (to the east); over time, the shortened name of "Tripoli" came to refer to just Oea, which derives from the Greek words tria and polis meaning "three cities"

Administrative divisions: 22 governorates (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi (Benghazi), Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus (Tripoli), Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 October (2011)

History: previous 1951, 1977; in July 2017, the Constitutional Assembly completed and approved a draft of a new permanent constitution; in September 2018, the House of Representatives passed a constitutional referendum law in a session with contested reports of the quorum needed to pass the vote, and submitted it to the High National Elections Commission in December to begin preparations for a constitutional referendum; the referendum is planned in 2022, following the presidential election

Legal system: Libya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Mohammed Al MENFI (since 5 February 2021)
Head of government: Interim Prime Minister Abdul Hamid DUBAYBAH (since 5 February 2021)
Elections/appointments: Libya’s first direct presidential election, scheduled for 24 December 2021, was not held

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al Nuwab) or HoR (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members directly elected by majority vote; member term NA); note - the High State Council serves as an advisory group for the HoR
Elections: last held on 25 June 2014
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition; note - only 188 of the 200 seats were filled in the June 2014 election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the HoR also boycotted the election

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Libya's judicial system consists of a supreme court, central high courts (in Tripoli, Benghazi, and Sabha), and a series of lower courts; the judicial system is factious given the ongoing tension between Libya's eastern and western regions; since 2011, Libyan political factions and armed groups have targeted judges and courthouses

Political parties and leaders:


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Fadil S M OMAR (since 17 July 2023)
In the us chancery: 1460 Dahlia Street NW, Washington, DC 20,012
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 944-9,601
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 944-9,606
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Jeremy BERNDT (since 9 October 2023)
From the us embassy: operations suspended
From the us mailing address: 8,850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20,521-8,850
From the us telephone: [216] 71-107-000
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Libya: three horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country

National symbols: star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green

National anthem
Name: "Libya, Libya, Libya"
Lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
Note: also known as "Ya Beladi" or "Oh, My Country!"; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was "Allahu Akbar," (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 5 (all cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Archaeological Site of Cyrene; [link]

Libya - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income, fossil fuel-based North African economy; 31% economic contraction due to COVID-19 and 2020 oil blockade; reduced government spending; central bank had to devalue currency; public wages are over 60% of expenditures

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$147.942 billion (2021 est.)
$112.612 billion (2020 est.)
$148.037 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
31.37% (2021 est.)
-23.93% (2020 est.)
-11.2% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 71.6% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 19.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 2.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.3% (2016 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 38.8% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -33.8% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.)
Industry: 52.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 46.4% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: -10.57% (2019 est.)

Labor force: 2.28 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
19.58% (2021 est.)
20.07% (2020 est.)
19.66% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 50.5% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 41.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 73.8%

Population below poverty line
Note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: NA
Highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $28.005 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $37.475 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -25.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
4.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
7.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 51.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

From forest resources: 0.06% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$4.78 billion (2020 est.)
$4.817 billion (2019 est.)
$11.276 billion (2018 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
28.5% (2017 est.)
25.9% (2016 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$4.78 billion (2020 est.)
$4.817 billion (2019 est.)
$11.276 billion (2018 est.)

$9.537 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$29.326 billion (2019 est.)
$29.964 billion (2018 est.)

Partners: Italy 18%, China 16%, Germany 15%, Spain 15%, United Arab Emirates 6%, France 6%, United States 5% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, natural gas, refined petroleum, scrap iron, gold (2021)

$14.334 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$25.368 billion (2019 est.)
$18.849 billion (2018 est.)

Partners: China 16%, Turkey 14%, Italy 9%, United Arab Emirates 9%, Egypt 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, cars, broadcasting equipment, cigarettes, jewelry (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$82.262 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$79.656 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$84.664 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$3.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.116 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar - 4.514 (2021 est.)
1.389 (2020 est.)
1.398 (2019 est.)
1.365 (2018 est.)
1.394 (2017 est.)

Libya - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 70.2% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 25,360,340,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 465 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 10.516 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 1,252,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 219,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,067,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 48.363 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 89,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 16,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 168,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 12,414,736,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 7,669,690,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 4,441,150,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 1,504,868,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 38.297 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 30.018 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 8.279 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 107.118 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Libya - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 1,218,180 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 2.9 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2019)

Internet country code: .ly

Internet users
Total: 3,095,400 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 46.2% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 332,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2020 est.)

Libya - Military 2023
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Military expenditures: not available

Military and security forces:
the Tripoli-based Government of National Unity (GNU) has access to various ground, air, and naval/coast guard forces comprised of a mix of formations and equipment from the QADHAFI regime, semi-regular and nominally integrated units, tribal armed groups/militias, civilian volunteers, and foreign private military contractors and mercenaries; the GNU has a Ministry of Defense, but has limited control over its security forces

the self-styled Libyan National Army (LNA), under de facto LNA commander Khalifa HAFTER, also includes various ground, air, and naval forces comprised of semi-regular military personnel, militias, and foreign private military contractors and mercenaries; the LNA operates independently from the GNU and exerts influence throughout eastern, central, and southern Libya (2023)

Note 1: the Stabilization Support Apparatus (SSA) is a state-funded militia established in January 2021 by the GNA; it is tasked with securing government buildings and officials, participating in combat operations, apprehending those suspected of national security crimes, and cooperating with other security bodies
Note 2: the national police force under the Ministry of Interior oversees internal security (with support from military forces under the Ministry of Defense), but much of Libya's security-related police work generally falls to informal armed groups, which receive government salaries but lack formal training, supervision, or consistent accountability

Military service age and obligation: not available

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Ansar al-Sharia groups; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - Libya (ISIS-L); al-Mulathamun Battalion (al-Mourabitoun); al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Libya - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 927,153 (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 5A

Airports: 146 (2021)
With paved runways: 68
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 78
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 68
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 78
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 2 (2021)

Pipelines: 882 km condensate, 3,743 km gas, 7,005 km oil (2013)


Total: 37,000 km (2010)
Paved: 34,000 km (2010)
Unpaved: 3,000 km (2010)


Merchant marine
Total: 94 (2022)
By type: general cargo 2, oil tanker 12, other 80

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Tripoli
Oil terminals: Az Zawiyah, Ra's Lanuf
Lng terminals export: Marsa el Brega

Libya - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Libya-Algeria: while dormant, Libya has long claimed about 32,000 km² in southeastern Algeria south of the Libyan town of Ghat  

Libya-Chad: various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya; Libyan forces clashed with Chadian rebels in September 2021

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 24,887 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 11,623 (Syria) (refugees and asylum seekers), 8,302 (Eritrea) (2023)
IDPs: 125,802 (conflict between pro-QADHAFI and anti-QADHAFI forces in 2011; post-QADHAFI tribal clashes 2014) (2023)

Illicit drugs


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